Global Education Reference

Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.com

Afghanistan - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Administration, Finance, Educational Research - SECONDARY EDUCATION, HIGHER EDUCATION

Secondary level education (ages 13 to 18) was not compulsory and appeared to be less widely available (if at all) than primary education and nonformal education programs. Although elementary schools were located throughout the country, secondary schools were generally located only in larger cities. Prior to the war years, Afghanistan had two universities, Kabul University and the University …

1 minute read

Albania - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education - NONFORMAL EDUCATION, SUMMARY

Albania's nonformal education offerings are limited. Part-time education is available through correspondence courses. Employment-related continuing education courses are offered to diploma-holders with two years of related work experience. Students completing these courses are given a certificate. Albania's lack of resources has restricted the availability of distance learni…

1 minute read

American Samoa

American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States. The capital is Pago Pago, which is located on the island of Tutilla. The islands are located approximately 2200 hundred miles southwest of the Hawaiian Islands. American Samoa has a total land area of 77 miles that includes 5 inhabited islands and 1 uninhabited coral atoll. The estimated population in 2000 was 65,446 and …

1 minute read

Andorra

Andorra, located between France and Spain on the southern slope of the Pyrenees Mountains, is one of Europe's smallest countries. This landlocked country houses a population of approximately 66,000 in an area about two and one half times the size of Washington, DC. The population is 43 percent Spanish, 33 percent Andorran, and 24 percent other ethnic groups. The official language i…

1 minute read

Argentina - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education - NONFORMAL EDUCATION

Some primary schools are devoted exclusively to those who are beyond school age, providing them with the standard curriculum in the evening to accommodate those who hold jobs. The National Plan for literacy and adult education has established centers offering accelerated primary education to any adult who lacks basic literacy. …

1 minute read

Aruba

Aruba, a 74.5 square mile island located in the southern Caribbean Sea, was first inhabited by Arawak Indians and later was discovered by a Spaniard, Alonso de Ojeda. The chain of dates documenting Aruban governmental history includes: 1499, the date of the Spanish discovery; 1636, when the Dutch took control of the island following the 80 Year War between Spain and Holland; 1805 to 1816,…

5 minute read

Bahamas

The independent Commonwealth of the Bahamas, a group of about 700 islands totaling 3,400 square miles, is headed by the Prime Minister; the British monarchy, represented by a local governor-general, is the honorary head of state. Literacy in the Bahamas is estimated as ranging from as low as 85 percent (functional literacy, as defined by the National Literacy Project) to as high as 98 per…

3 minute read

Belize

Belize, formerly British Honduras, is a central American country on the Caribbean Sea bordered by Mexico and Guatemala. A British colony for more than a century, Belize is now a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The official head of state, Queen Elizabeth, is represented by a governor general. The head of government is a prime minister. Belize occupies 22,965 square kil…

5 minute read

Benin

The Republic of Benin lies on the western coast of Africa, between Nigeria and Togo. The educational system was inherited from the French when the country achieved independence in August 1, 1960. It has since undergone many reforms to make it serve the country's needs. The system is public and secular, and consists of two years of preprimary education, six years of primary school, …

3 minute read

Bermuda

Discovered by Spanish explorer Juan de Bermudez in 1503, Bermuda, known as "the isle of devils," inspired the setting for Shakespeare's The Tempest because of its treacherous seas and reefs. Bermuda is the oldest English-speaking settlement in the Western Hemisphere; as a result of the slave trade, however, 60 percent of Bermudans have African ancestors. A self-govern…

4 minute read

Bhutan

Bhutan is a small, landlocked South Asian country of 47,000 square kilometers located in the eastern Himalayas between China and India. In the year 2000, Bhutan had a population of about 2 million people with 40 percent below the age of 14 years. (Official statistics do not include people of Nepalese origin, though, and place the population count at 600,000 people.) Nearly 90 percent of t…

5 minute read

British Virgin Islands

The territory of the British Virgin Islands (GBVI or BVI), an archipelago comprising 36 islands, lies east of Puerto Rico and immediately northwest of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), its culturally dominant neighbor. Under British rule from the seventeenth century onward, the BVI has been a crown colony with a ministerial government since 1960. In 1990 its mainly black population was abou…

3 minute read

Brunei

The small (2,226 square miles) South-East Asian Sultanate of Brunei is located on the northwestern coast of the island of Borneo, sandwiched between two states belonging to neighboring Malaysia. The official name of this wealthy, oil-rich country that became independent of British control (although it was never an outright colony) in 1984 is Brunei Darussalam (Arabic for "Abode of …

5 minute read

Burkina Faso - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Secondary Education, Higher Education - EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM—OVERVIEW, PREPRIMARY PRIMARY EDUCATION, FINANCE ADMINISTRATION EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, TEACHING PROFESSION, SUMMARY

School enrollment in Burkina Faso is among the lowest in Africa. In 1992 primary enrollment reached 28 percent; roughly 37 percent of these students were girls. Free primary education is not compulsory. French is the primary language of instruction at all educational levels, and the academic year runs from October to June. Burkinabe children attend primary school between the ages of 7 and…

2 minute read

Burundi

The country of Burundi continues to go through fundamental changes that affect, like all its institutions, the educational system. Early in the twentieth century, what is now Burundi was part of Belgium's colony of Ruanda-Urundi (which also included what came to be known as Rwanda). From 1908 until 1948, many of the schools were operated by churches. These were mostly primary schoo…

2 minute read

Cambodia

Formal education in Cambodia was first provided solely to young boys by Buddhist monks, known as bonzes. During the second half of the nineteenth century, French leaders implemented a system based on their own model, with primary, secondary, and higher levels all overseen by the Ministry of Education. Although Cambodia maintained this system for several decades, it was not until the south…

5 minute read

Cape Verde

The Republic of Cape Verde, an archipelago of 10 islands and 5 islets located 385 miles off the northwest coast of Africa, is in the unenviable position of having to import approximately 80 to 90 percent of its foodstuff and of being prone to droughts leading to famines. These factors and others, including high unemployment, impact the educational system. The independent (1975) Republic …

4 minute read

Cayman Islands

The Cayman Islands, a dependency of the United Kingdom, are located in the Caribbean Sea about 160 kilometers south of Cuba and 290 kilometers northwest of Jamaica. This British Crown Colony consists of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. The islands, discovered by Columbus in 1503 and taken over by the British in 1670, are a self-governing member of the Federatio…

2 minute read

Central African Republic - History Background, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education, Higher Education - SUMMARY

Overall, education in the Central African Republic has made progress in eradicating the illiteracy problem among its citizens. Nonetheless, the continued population growth creates a milieu in which added resources and attention must be given to ongoing teacher training, technological support, development of new school sites, and an instructional commitment to science and technical educati…

1 minute read

Christmas Island

The territory of Christmas Island is 870 miles northwest of Australia. Seventy-three percent of the population is Chinese; however, English is the primary language taught in school. The rest of the population is Malaysian, European, or Australian. The educational system recognizes and celebrates the various multicultural holidays and ceremonies. Children between the ages of 6 and…

1 minute read

Comoros

One of the poorest countries in the world, Comoros is an archipelago, or group of islands, in the western Indian Ocean. It is located between eastern Africa and the island of Madagascar. Under French ownership from 1843 until 1975, Comoros modeled its educational system after that of France. Education, which is free, is mandatory for children between the ages of 7 and 16. Primary educati…

2 minute read

Congo

Congo is commonly called Congo-Brazzaville to distinguish it from its neighbor, Zaire, which recently renamed itself as The Democratic Republic of Congo (informally called Democratic Congo). Congo has a landmass of 342,000 square kilometers and a population of about 2.5 to 3 million. Its capital is Brazzaville, which is located on the Congo River directly across from Kinshasa, the capital…

4 minute read

Cook Islands

The Cook Islands, located in the South Pacific, maintains public education that is free and compulsory for all children between 5 and 15 years of age. Although governed by the Ministry of Education, the administration of the system is divided among three regions: Rarotonga Island, the Southern group, and the Northern Group. The use of Maori is encouraged in all the schools, although Engli…

2 minute read

Djibouti

The Republic of Djibouti, a country of about 500,000 people, is situated on the northeastern coast of Africa, bordered by Somalia in the south, Ethiopia in the west, and Eritrea in the north. Until 1967 it was called French Somaliland by France, the colonial power that owned this small piece of land since the late 1800s when the European nations divided up the map of Africa between …

6 minute read

East Timor

Timor, an island north of Australia, gained its independence from Portugal in 1975 but was annexed by Indonesia in July 1976. At that time, 93 percent of the population was illiterate. A small percentage of the Timorese had access to education, and only 39 students attended universities. Indonesia required schooling between the ages of 7 and 13 and implemented an assimilation policy throu…

1 minute read

El Salvador - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education - TEACHING PROFESSION

Traditionally, teachers were recruited from the high school level, but, after 1930, they were recruited from the graduating classes of the Escuelas Normales (teacher training schools). After 1965, under Educational Reform, the Escuelas Normales developed into part of the secondary educational system. Most of the teachers for universities and higher levels hold a Master's degr…

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Essay Components

Historical Evolution Political, Social, & Cultural Bases Constitutional Provisions Laws Affecting Education Educational Philosophies Compulsory Education Age Limits Enrollment Female, Minority Enrollment Academic Year Language of Instruction Examination Grading System Private Schools Religious Schools Instructional Technology (Computers) Textbooks—Publication, Adoption Audiovisuals C…

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Faeroe Islands

The Faeroe Islands comprise 18 rather small islands in the North Atlantic with less than 50,000 inhabitants. Once a colony of Denmark, they have been self-governing since 1948; however, the Faeroe Islands remain under Danish sovereignty. The local government (landstyri) receives a block grant to supplement tax income within the country, which covers one-third of public expenditures; the c…

1 minute read

Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands (also known as Malvinas) are a United Kingdom’s Overseas Territory that the British have continuously controlled since 1833. Largely a ruralagricultural economy produced an urban-rural dichotomy in the provision of education. Isolated rural areas compared to the capital, Stanley, made it difficult to recruit and retain teachers. In addition, costs were high in making…

3 minute read

Fiji

Fiji, officially the Republic of Fiji, is a nation and archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean that is part of the Melanesian Island group. It is comprised of 540 islets and 300 islands of which about 100 are inhabited. All the islands are volcanic in origin, and the largest of these are Vanua Levu and Viti Levu where the capital city of Suva is located. Formerly a British colony, Fiji bec…

3 minute read

French Guiana

French Guiana, an overseas department of France governed by the French Constitution, is located on the northeast coast of South America, adjacent to Brazil and Suriname. The educational system there is modeled after that of France. Between 1980 and 1993, enrollment increased by 70 percent at the primary level and by 87 percent at the secondary level. Education, which is free, is mandatory…

1 minute read

French Polynesia

French Polynesia is an overseas territory of France that includes Tahiti and 118 smaller islands in the eastern South Pacific. There are 5 major islands (archipelagos): Society Islands, which include Tahiti and Moorea; the Marquesas Islands; the Austral Islands; the Tuamotu Archipelago; and the Gambier Islands. Children generally start school at age 5 and complete primary education by age…

1 minute read

Gabon - History Background, Preprimary Primary Education, Higher Education, Nonformal Education, Teaching Profession - EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM—OVERVIEW, SECONDARY EDUCATION, FINANCE ADMINISTRATION EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

In present-day Gabon, education is compulsory for 10 years from the ages of 6 to 16. The system is modeled on education in France and French is the language of instruction. However, primary education lasts six years rather than the five it does in France because students need an extra year to begin learning French. Secondary education lasts 7 years from the ages of 12 to 18. It is divided…

1 minute read

Gambia - History Background, Educational System—overview, Higher Education - PREPRIMARY PRIMARY EDUCATION, SECONDARY EDUCATION

Children attend primary school for 6 years from the ages of 7 through 13. Although schooling is not compulsory, almost all of the children living around Banjul (capital) attend school; only a third of those in other parts of the country go to school. At the completion of six years, students are awarded the Primary School Leaving Certificate. Secondary education is divided into Middle Scho…

less than 1 minute read

Gibraltar

A British overseas territory since being ceded by Spain in 1713, Gibraltar carries on a peculiar existence sandwiched between the Iberian Peninsula and the mouth of the Mediterranean. English is the official language in the government and the schools, while Spanish remains the language frequently used within most homes. As is the case in much territory with a history of British influence,…

1 minute read

Greenland

The education system is regarded as a strategic tool to secure sustainability and a self-supplying labor market. It is similar to the Danish educational system but there have been strong efforts to "Greenlandize" it, in terms of staff, language, and adaptation to local circumstances. The instruction is mainly bilingual—but in many specialized domains Inuit speaking te…

2 minute read

Grenada - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Higher Education - SECONDARY EDUCATION, NONFORMAL EDUCATION, TEACHING PROFESSION

The majority of students do not continue on to a secondary school program, according to the last available statistics. The secondary school program in 1987 included 20 schools and 6,250 students. In 1992 there were 18 secondary schools with 6,970 pupils. The Center for Popular Education (CPE) is the main adult education institution. There is a 95 percent literacy rate among the adul…

less than 1 minute read

Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe has been a French possession since 1635 and a department of France since 1946. In July 2000, the population was estimated at 426,493 people. The economy depends heavily on tourism but requires substantial aid from France. In 1998, the unemployment rate was 27.8 percent, and GDP per capita was estimated at $9,000 in 1996. Although French is the official language, the majority of…

3 minute read

Guernsey

The state of Guernsey comprises not only the English Channel island of that name but also two smaller islands, Sark and Alderney. Like its larger and more populous neighbor, Jersey, Guernsey has drawn benefits from its location between Great Britain and France. Originally a part of Normandy, the Channel Islands became attached to Britain at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 and were…

1 minute read

Guinea - History Background, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education, Higher Education - CONSTITUTIONAL LEGAL FOUNDATIONS, NONFORMAL EDUCATION

The constitution of 1958 guarantees free, compulsory, and equal education to every citizen until the age of 15. However, the legal and constitutional foundations of the educational system have been undermined by an early Socialist-inspired plan that often resulted in decrees being directly handed down from the executive branch of the government without any consultation or debate with qual…

1 minute read

Guinea-Bissau

Located primarily on the western coast of Africa (and including the archipelago of Bijagoz), Guinea-Bissau has approximately 1,000,000 inhabitants. As a colony of Portugal, education was originally the province of Roman Catholic missionaries, who followed the governmental policy of assimilating indigenous peoples into European culture. Upon liberation from Portuguese rule in 1974, the Par…

3 minute read