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The history of the educational system of Chad has been negatively impacted by the civil wars that have divided and impoverished the country for 20 years, following its independence from France. Since 1996, some degree of political and social stability has taken hold, and it has had a positive influence on education. There have been improvements, and the literacy rate has increased from 15 percent in 1960, to 20 percent in 1985, to 48 percent in 1996. The Université de N'Djaména has experienced continuous growth, with a budget for fiscal 2000 of 970 million CFA Francs. The educational budget should represent at least 20 percent of the national expenditures to fund education adequately at all levels.

In 2001 the percentage of children in full-time education was improving for boys (84.56 percent), but still remained very low for Chadian girls (50.02 percent). The economy of Chad has an immediate impact on its educational system and, in 1995, an inflation rate of 41 percent and a 50 percent devaluation of the currency had devastating effects on existing and developing programs. Civil unrest continued in Northern Chad and the U.S. Peace Corps decided to withdraw in 1998 since it could no longer guarantee the safety of its volunteers. Once political stability has been restored, the resources, which for so long have been appropriated by the military, can be reallocated to education. The training of a greater number of qualified teachers and adequate funding for school equipment remain a challenging task for Chadian education.

The World Bank is currently funding a new project for primary education: the addition of 1,000 qualified teachers each year until 2015. The successful implementation of this plan would enable Chad to build a pedagogical foundation on which its educational future could be firmly established.


Ali, Mahamat Seïd, ed. Données Statistiques sur l'Education. N'Djaména: Services de Planification et de Statistiques Unifiés, 2000.

Annuaire Statistique de L'Enseignement Elémentaire. N'Djaména: Direction de la Planification, des Examens et Concours, Division des Statistiques, 1992.

Doréba, Téguidé Sig., Dijimtola Nelli, and Adoum Khamis. Une Education Nationale pour l'An 2000! L'Indispensable Sursaut. N'Djaména: CEFOD, 1995.

Esquieu, Paul, and Serge Peano. L'Enseignement Privé et Spontané dans le Système Educatif Tchadien. Paris: Institut International de Planification de l'Education (UNESCO), 1994.

Mbaïosso, Adoum. L'Education au Tchad: Bilan, Problèmes et Perspectives. Paris: Karthala, 1990.

Nomaye, Madana. L'Education de Base au Tchad: Situation, Enjeux et Perspectives. Paris: Harmattan, 1998.

Rapport National sur le Développement de L'Education. N'Djaména: Ministère de l'Education Nationale (Commission Nationale Tchadienne pour l'UNESCO), 1996.

—Eric H. du Plessis

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Education - Free Encyclopedia Search EngineGlobal Education ReferenceChad - History Background, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education, Higher Education - CONSTITUTIONAL LEGAL FOUNDATIONS