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Nonformal Education

The Institute of Adult Education was established in 1949 as a department of the University College of the Gold Coast with the responsibility of providing university-based adult education to the nation. The institute opened branch offices in major regional centers to supervise night classes that prepared participants to write the various examinations that qualified them for university admission. It has also conducted correspondence courses for its audience. Another well known institute that conducts correspondence courses in Ghana is the London-based Rapid Result College. Covering courses in all fields that are examined at the GCE O and A levels, participating students receive instructional packages, are assigned exercises, and are graded and prepared for the examinations. Due to the higher foreign exchange cost, more and more Ghanaians seeking preparatory training are likely to use the night class system. With the increase of computer services available in the country, online education opportunities are emerging. For example, it was announced in the late 1990s that Clarke Atlanta University in America now allows students in Ghana to register for its online MBA degree. Also in the 1990s, the University of Cape Coast posted African studies courses online, mostly targeting students in overseas countries.

Another form of nonformal education is the adult literacy program conducted through the Peoples' Education Association. This volunteer organization was first organized in 1949 to teach illiterate adults to read in their local languages. Churches and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were the main program supporter, but the government became an active participant in adult literacy education following the 1989 launching of the National Functional Literacy Program (NFLP). The attractiveness of the program is attributed to its combination of skill training with literacy education and, according to the UNESCO 2000 Assessment, about 900,000 students graduated from the program between 1992 and 1997. On the whole, however, because of the low availability of technical and vocational training opportunities, informal apprenticeship thrives in Ghana. Traditionally, this is the private nonformal system of providing people with training that allows them to gain the skills necessary for the job market.

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Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.comGlobal Education ReferenceGhana - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education