Constitutional & Legal Foundations
Estonia is a democratic republic, and the supreme power of the state is vested in the people. The powers of the state are exercised solely pursuant to the constitution and specific laws that are in conformity therewith. The activities of the Riigikogu (Parliament), President of the Republic, Government of the Republic, and the courts are organized on the principle of separation and balance of powers.
The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia determines the right of every citizen to an education. Education is compulsory for school-age children to the extent specified by law and is free in state and local government general education schools. Other education institutions, such as private schools, may also be established pursuant to law. Parents have the final choice of education for their children. The 1992 Estonian Law on Education established the following general goals of education: to promote the development of personality, family, and the Estonian nation, as well as of national minorities; to promote Estonian economic, political, and cultural life and of nature preservation in the global economic and cultural context; to educate loyal citizens; and to set up prerequisites of continuing education for citizens. In addition, the Law on Education established a compulsory nine-year basic education (grades 1-9).
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