Traditionally, a large percentage of teacher-training institutions have been run by private secondary schools which cater to females, but both private and public school teachers must meet the same requirements. Primary school personnel must be 18 years old or older; must have graduated from normal schools, although this is not always the case; must be in good standing in their communities; and must be in good health. In addition to these requirements, secondary and normal school teachers must have completed a four year course of study in a faculty of philosophy, letters, or education at an accredited university. Teachers who meet these requirements are titulado or accredited by the Ministry of Public Education. Because of the requirement of a university education, a high proportion of secondary school teachers are not accredited, while a large percentage of primary school teachers are accredited or titulado. Many primary teachers are recruited largely from the lower classes in the urban areas, but they are often community leaders in the rural areas even though they are likely to be less educated there. Secondary teachers are appointed directly by the Ministry of Public Education and more often male.
The low wages for university professors hampers knowledge gathering in new "high-tech" fields and is the reason in some cases for why the transfer of knowledge to colleagues or students is limited. Employment opportunities in universities are often not very attractive because of low salaries and limited resources for research. A university professor earns about US$400 a month.
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