Administration, Finance, & Educational Research
The Ministry of Education oversaw the operation of 13,340 schools and 270,100 teachers (including daycare) in 1995-1996. Consistent with Article 39B of the Constitution of the Republic, responsibility for education rests with the state. The Ministry guides, performs, and implements state and government policy in education, except for higher education. The National Education System is composed of a central authority, provincial and municipal organs, and several administrative bodies that answer only to the National Assembly of People's Power, the legislative structure of the Republic of Cuba.
The Ministry of Education, provincial and local educational officials, and teachers and professors periodically propose changes that are consistent with their charge to conduct, organize, and manage educational services in their respective territories. The local education authorities are subject to the principle of double subordination: to the Ministry and to local councils. A total of 2,173,000 students were in the formal education system (excluding universities), and an additional 145,000 children were in daycare centers in 1995-1996. The Ministry of Higher Education is charged with overseeing universities and various institutes and is distinct from the Ministry of Education.
Following the "Nationalization of Education" in July 1961, all educational expenses are covered by public funds from the state budget. The Ministry of Finances controls expenditures and auditing, and the Ministry of Education is accountable for spending. Cuba's support for education is remarkable, rising from about 3.4 percent of GNP before the Revolution, to 7.0 percent by 1965, to 7.2 percent in 1980, to 11.0 percent in 1994. Yet, the impacts of the "Special Period" are such that actual expenditures have fallen from 1853.9 million pesos in 1990 to 1430 million pesos in 1995-1996 (Ministry of Education 1996).
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