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Canada - Summary

Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.comGlobal Education ReferenceCanada - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education

SUMMARY

Education in Canada has contributed to a remarkable era of prosperity in the nation during the late 1990s and first part of the twenty-first century. Reforms in the educational system have been apparent in primary and secondary education, colleges and universities, and vocational training. Although there has been recent dissatisfaction with the test scores of students in the primary and secondary grades, the rising number of Canadians with degrees and advanced degrees has offered some consolation. Conflicts between French and British interests in the far-flung provinces have been eased by the government's strong support of bilingual education. Likewise, the government has been supportive of attempts by the aboriginal peoples to better their lot in life through education, even as they preserve their customs and language.

While Canada's economy is expected to lose some of its luster as the United States and other industrialized nations experience economic downturns in 2001 and lower population rates will certainly lead to declines in university and college enrollments in certain provinces, the future of Canada overall looks brilliant in the twenty-first century as its ample resources and educated or trained workforce give the nation benefits many other nations only can envy.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calam, John. "The Royal Grammar Schools." Educational Record 79(4) (October-December 1963): 256ff.

Cochrane, J. The One-Room School in Canada. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1981.

Fraser Institute, The. Report Cards. Available from http://www.fraserinstitute.ca.

Harris, Robin S. A History of Higher Education in Canada: 1663-1960. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.

Katz, Michael B. and Paul H. Mattingly. Education and Social Change: Themes from Ontario's Past. New York: New York University Press, 1975.

Johnson, F. Henry. A Brief History of Canadian Education. Toronto: McGraw-Hill of Canada, 1968.

Martin, Wilfred B.W. and Allan J. Macdonell. Canadian Education: A Sociological Analysis. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall of Canada, 1978.

McInnis, Edgar. Canada: A Political and Social History. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 1969.

McNaught, Kenneth. The Penguin History of Canada. London: Penguin, 1988.

Mulcahy, Dennis. Learning and Teaching in Multi-grade Classrooms. St. John's: Faculty of Education Monograph, Memorial University, 1993.

——. The One-Room School in Newfoundland and Labrador. An Oral History Project. 19 January 1999. Available from http://www.ucs.mun.ca.

Robinson, Laura. Crossing the Line. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1998.

Statistics Canada. 1996 and 2001 Census Information. 2001. Available from http://www.statcan.ca.

UNESCO Statistical Overview: School Enrollment. Canada. 1999. Available from http://www.ibe.unesco.org.

University of Sakatchewan. Native Studies Review. 31 October 1999, Available from http://www.usask.ca.

U.S. Department of Education. Condition of Education: 1995. 2001. Available from http://www.ed.gov.


—Hank Nuwer

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