From 1945 to 1992, the teaching profession was disciplined along Communist party guidelines. Courses for teacher preparation stressed Marxist concepts of psychology and pedagogy. Teachers were trained to use didactic teaching methods. Individuality and interaction were discouraged. Teachers were viewed as instruments for political indoctrination. After 1992 the Ministry of Education began to encourage teachers to use alternative instructional methods and introduce democratic principles into the curriculum.
Teachers in nursery schools and kindergartens must complete four years at the pedagogical middle school to receive a certificate and the title of educator. Primary school teachers in lower grades must complete three years at a higher education institution. Teachers in upper grades are required to have four years of academic preparation, education courses, and practice training. Secondary school teachers must complete four years in an academic discipline in addition to education courses and practice teaching.
Professors in higher education must hold a degree of Doctor in Sciences and have a background of extensive research and publishing. Docents are experienced instructors or researchers with a Candidate of Sciences degree. Pedagogues and assistants hold diplomas with excellent grades.
Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.comGlobal Education ReferenceAlbania - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education - NONFORMAL EDUCATION, SUMMARY