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Speech and Theater Education - Functions, Incidence of Speech Instruction, Nature of Instruction, Cocurricular Speech Programs, Teacher Preparation

communication national students speaking

Speech communication education in the secondary schools is of critical importance in preparing students for their roles in a global society. Since the early 1970s, employers and college admissions personnel have identified speaking, listening, and critical thinking as skills and knowledge crucial to success. These three skills are the basis for most oral communication or speech classes in the schools. Despite the increased emphasis on speech communication education on the part of academics and employers, most elementary schools do not offer speech communication classes, and many secondary schools do not offer a full complement of classes in speech communication. On the other hand, many schools offer at least some opportunities for students to gain speaking, listening, and critical thinking experiences. In a 2002 publication, Sherwyn Morreale, associate director of the National Communication Association (NCA), wrote, "The need for communication education in grades K–12 is a crucial national concern that cannot and should not be ignored. Competence in oral communication–speaking, listening, and media literacy–is prerequisite to students' personal and academic success in life" (p. v).

Speech communication focuses on how people use messages to generate meaning within and across various contexts, cultures, channels, and media. Teachers in the field of speech communication promote the effective and ethical practice of human communication. The National Education Goals Panel set forth six broad targets for educational improvements, which became part of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act of 1994. One of the objectives within the goals identified communication as an important knowledge and skill base for every American.

Functions

The functions of secondary school speech communication education are based on the premise that such instruction should provide for the need of all students–those who are deficient, those who are gifted, and those who are normal in basic oral communication abilities.

The needs of the student who has a speech defect cannot be ignored. Students who stutter, have a cleft palate, or have a severe hearing disorder cry out for special speech instruction. U.S. Census Bureau data from 1997 indicated that 2,270,000 people aged fifteen years and over had "difficulty with speech" (493,000 of those had severe problems). Another 7,966,000 had "difficulty hearing conversation," with 832,000 noted as having severe problems. Most school districts have access to specially educated speech and hearing therapists. The school therapist in the early twenty-first century is expected to have knowledge of the cultural and genetic aspects of speech and language development; the physical bases of speech, hearing, and language; the principles used in diagnosing speech, hearing, and language disorders; and the methods of treating disorders of speech, hearing, and language. Thus, such remedial instruction is considered outside the province of the classroom teaching of speech.

Speech communication education also seeks to provide learning experiences for students with special interests and abilities in speech. The needs of gifted students are often met by cocurricular activities. Forensics contests, intrascholastic and inter-scholastic debate, school theatrical productions, radio and television clubs, and school variety programs are established parts of the secondary school curriculum through speech courses. Such courses are often electives and are available only in schools where the speech teacher's time, interests, and education make them available.

Speech communication educators urge an emphasis on programs that provide the best education for the greatest number. As justification for their claim that speech instruction should be a required part of the secondary school curriculum for all students, speech educators note that oral communication is an extraordinarily pervasive element of social life. In a 1980 article, Larry Barker and colleagues reported that college students spend from 42 to 53 percent of their time in listening and 30 to 32 percent of their time in speaking, and only 11 to 14 percent in writing and 15 to 17 percent of their time in reading. Earlier research suggested similar and even higher percentages of speaking and listening for K–12 students. And Robert Bohlken suggested in 1999 that all students are expected to listen 50 percent of the time despite few opportunities for listening instruction. Because of the importance of oral communication in social relations, systematic instruction for all students in the nature, principles, and skills of oral communication is considered the primary objective of contemporary secondary speech education.

Incidence of Speech Instruction

Some states have mandated speech communication education. Texas students are required to take a course that covers communication fundamentals, speaking, and listening. California, Maryland, and North Carolina have passed legislation mandating oral communication. In addition, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education have published guidelines and standards that include oral communication. The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)/International Reading Association (IRA) Standards for the English Language Arts include attention to oral literacy and communication skills. Standard 4 states, "Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes" (NCTE/IRA, p. 33).

While these guidelines are given, speech communication educators feel that all students need to receive systematic and in-depth direct instruction in speech communication in specifically designated courses. For example, English teachers may use one formal speaking event such as an oral book report or a formal oral report as the sole measure of a student's speaking competence. Listening instruction is often only a request for students to "listen carefully"; at best, it may involve an activity where students must follow directions or summarize a story. While group work is common in classrooms, there is little instruction on how and why groups work.

Because of the need to provide speech communication instruction and the paucity of such courses in the schools, the National Communication Association developed a series of publications to address the issue of what to teach. The Speaking, Listening, and Media Literacy Standards and Competency Statements for K–12 Education provides a list of twenty standards for what should be taught in elementary and secondary schools in the United States. Each standard has a list of competencies addressing knowledge, behavior, and attitudes. While this list of standards and competencies is not intended to be prescriptive, it offers a beginning point for teachers, school districts, and states who want to know what professionals at all levels in the speech communication discipline deem "what K–12 students need to know and be able to do."

Nature of Instruction

The field of speech communication consists of a rich amalgam of studies having to do with the act and art of oral communication. In university speech departments there are courses of study in rhetoric and public address; interpersonal, group, organizational, political, intercultural, and nonverbal communication; listening; speech science; theater, oral interpretation, or performance studies; and radio, television, and film. Scholars may approach the study of speech communication from physiological, acoustic, linguistic, aesthetic, psychological, sociological, and humanistic vantage points.

Speech instruction has traditionally been the sort that seeks to help students develop their personal skills in oral communication. Thus, units and courses of instruction in speech attempt to improve the students' fundamental communication, speaking, listening, and media literacy skills. The first, and often the only, secondary school course in speech usually consists of bits and pieces from the various areas of public communication. Each student makes speeches, takes part in debate, reads a poem, listens effectively, and uses media in an appropriate way. In addition to the basic introductory course, advanced elective courses are often made available for students with special speech interests. Table 1 shows the NCA K–12 Standards from 1998 suggesting twenty areas in which students should be allowed the opportunity to gain skills.

Cocurricular Speech Programs

In many high schools forensics, debate, and theater activities are as natural to the cocurricular program as band concerts, football games, and junior proms. The purpose of these activities is to give students with special aptitude an opportunity for more intensive and extended experience than is possible in the classroom. While the speech communication curriculum has moved away from total student performances, cocurricular speech programs will undoubtedly continue to make such experiences possible for interested and gifted students.

Forensics. The structure of forensic activities in high schools in the United States varies greatly from state to state. Some states have a well-defined and carefully organized system of forensic contests; others do not. Most states have a central agency responsible for the direction and control of forensic activities. In states with well-established forensic programs, a number of levels of contest activities exist. Most states offer some forms of impromptu and extemporaneous speaking, humorous interpretation, dramatic interpretation, original oratory, and poetry reading or literary programs. A number of states offer other events such as group acting, prose reading, radio and television speaking, after-dinner speaking, oratorical analysis, storytelling, pantomime, choral reading, student congress, informative speech, duet acting, expository speaking, and book reviewing.

TABLE 1

The number of activities offered is also subject to great variation from state to state. Two national organizations sponsor contests for member schools. The National Forensic League offers contests in extemporaneous speaking, original oratory, humorous and dramatic interpretation, prose and poetry interpretation, student congress, and debate, with the latter including policy debate, Lincoln-Douglas debate, and Barbara Jordan debate (which concerns urban issues). The league has more than 1,000 chapters in the United States and a membership of approximately 240,000. The National Catholic Forensic League sponsors contests in extemporaneous speaking, original oratory, interpretation events, and Lincoln-Douglas and policy debate for its more than 500 member schools.

Debate. Debate is often listed as one of the forensic activities and is usually sponsored by the same state agency sponsoring the other forensic activities. Debate is frequently handled apart from the other school forensic activities, however; thus it may be considered separately.

Because debate is an intellectually rigorous activity, it is most appropriate for students who are above average in intelligence and possess strong interest in problems of social concern. Debate is credited with developing such skills as the ability to collect and organize ideas, the ability to subordinate ideas, the ability to evaluate evidence, the ability to see logical connections, the ability to speak convincingly, the ability to adapt, and the ability to think and speak in outline terms.

Because interscholastic debating activities must focus on common topics, a central national coordinating agency is necessary. The National Federation of High School Activities serves this important coordinating function with the help of an advisory council made up of a representative from each state with a speech league or similar organization, a representative from the National Forensic League, and a representative from the National Catholic Forensic League. At an annual meeting the advisory committee considers the various problem areas that are recommended for consideration as debate topics and selects three of these areas for possible adoption; the final selection is made by means of a national referendum. Because three alternative debate propositions are provided for the national topic area, each state must decide which of the three propositions within the national topic area selected it will use as a debate topic.

Once a state agency has determined the particular proposition to be debated, the state conducts a series of tournaments in which that proposition is debated. Most states sponsor a state tournament, and many offer district and regional elimination tournaments as well. In addition to state-sanctioned tournaments, individual schools and cooperating universities and colleges sponsor invitational tournaments. Near the end of the season, member schools of the National Forensic League engage in league-sponsored tournaments in which the national proposition is debated. Teams that win a district tournament are eligible to compete in the National Forensic League National Tournament. The National Catholic Forensic League sponsors a similar national tournament.

Theater. The vast majority of high schools in the United States have some form of cocurricular theater program. The quality and quantity of cocurricular dramatic activities differ a great deal from school to school. Some schools still limit dramatic activities to class plays, which are directed by teachers with limited experience and directorial talent. Other schools have active and balanced theater programs consisting of several full-length productions of various types, one-act play productions, play readings, theater trips, and formal and informal meetings, workshops, and discussion sessions. High school theater, both curricular and cocurricular, has strong national leadership through the International Thespian Society and the American Educational Theatre Association.

Teacher Preparation

Nationally, a standards-based evaluation is used to measure how well teacher candidates meet quality indicators and competencies. According to a 2000 NCA document, Communication Teacher Education Preparation Standards and Guidelines, there are six quality standards used to assess the speech communication teacher preparation program: (1) structure of the program, (2) general studies component, (3) knowledge of communication, (4) professional education and pedagogical studies, (5) professional collaboration and growth, and (6) field-based experiences for communication.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ALLEN, RONALD R.; BROWN, KENNETH L.; and YATVIN, JOANNE. 1986. Learning Language through Communication: A Functional Perspective. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

BARKER, LARRY, et al. 1980. "An Investigation of

Proportional Time Spent in Various Communication Activities by College Students." Journal of Applied Communication Research 8:101–109.

BOHLKEN, ROBERT. 1999. "Substantiating the Fact that Listening Is Proportionately Most Used Language Skill." Listening Post 70:5.

CHANEY, ANN, and BURK, TAMARA L. 1998. Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K–8. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

COOPER, PAMELA, and MORREALE, SHERWYN, eds. 2002. Creating Competent Communicators: Activities for Teaching Speaking, Listening, and Media Literacy in K–6 Classrooms. Scottsdale, AZ: Holcomb Hathaway.

COOPER, PAMELA, and MORREALE, SHERWYN, eds. 2002. Creating Competent Communicators: Activities for Teaching Speaking, Listening, and Media Literacy in 7–12 Classrooms. Scottsdale, AZ: Holcomb Hathaway.

COOPER, PAMELA, and SIMONDS, CHERI. 1999. Communication for the Classroom Teacher, 6th edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

COOPER, PAMELA J., ed. 1985. Activities for Teaching Speaking and Listening: Grades 7–12. Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills and Speech Communication Association.

DANIEL, ARLIE, ed. 1985. Activities for Teaching Speaking and Listening: Grades K–6. Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills and Speech Communication Association.

Goals 2000: Educate America Act of 1994. U.S. Public

Law 103-227. U.S. Code. Vol. 20, secs. 5801 et seq.

HYNDS, SUSAN, and RUBIN, DONALD, eds. 1990. Perspectives on Talk and Learning. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

JOHNSON, KAREN E. 1995. Understanding Communication in Second Language Classrooms. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press.

KOUGL, KATHLEEN. 1997. Communicating in the Classroom. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

MORREALE, SHERWYN. 2002. "Preface." In Creating Competent Communicators: Activities for Teaching Speaking, Listening, and Media Literacy in K–6 Classrooms, ed. Pamela Cooper and Sherwyn Morreale. Scottsdale, AZ: Holcomb Hathaway.

NATIONAL COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION. 1998. The Speaking, Listening, and Media Literacy Standards and Competency Statements for K–12 Education. Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

NATIONAL COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION. 2000. Communication Teacher Education Preparation Standards and Guidelines. Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

NATIONAL COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION. 2000. Guidelines for Developing Oral Communication Curricula in Kindergarten through Twelfth Grade. Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF TEACHERS OF ENGLISH AND INTERNATIONAL READING ASSOCIATION. 1996. Standards for English Language Arts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English and International Reading Association.

O'KEEFE, VIRGINIA. 1995. Speaking to Think, Thinking to Speak: The Importance of Talk in the Learning Process. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/

Cook.

PURDY, MICHAEL, and BORISOFF, DEBORAH. 1997.

Listening in Everyday Life, 2nd edition. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

SEILER, WILLIAM J., and BEALL, MELISSA L. 2002.

Communication: Making Connections, 5th edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

VANGELISTI, ANITA L.; DALY, JOHN A.; and FRIEDRICH, GUSTAV W. 1999. Teaching Communication: Theory, Research, and Methods. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

ZAREFSKY, DAVID. 2002. Public Speaking: Strategies for Success, 3rd edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

INTERNET RESOURCES

AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL THEATRE ASSOCIATION. 2002. <www.edta.org>.

NATIONAL COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION. 2002. <www.natcom.org>.

INTERNATIONAL LISTENING ASSOCIATION. 2002. <www.listen.org>.

U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. 1997. "Americans with Disabilities: 1997–Table 2." <www.census.gov/hhes/www/disable/sipp/disab97/ds97t2.html>.

MELISSA L. BEALL

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12 days ago

Hi everyone
This is the most wonderful thing i have ever experience and i need to share this great testimony. About how i get my ex back after a breakup. I never believed it, because i never heard nor learn anything about it before. Hey guys my wife and I have been married for 15 years. For over five years I have been dealing with jealousy issues because of flirting and her having emotional type affairs with other men. I felt like my masculinity was in question and if I said the way she was acting bothered me, it seemed to make matters worse or I was accused of being controling. During this period I did state I wanted a divorce if the behavior was not going to end: texting men a night, leaving for the weekend without letting me know where she was going or not responding to messages. We do have a son and basically it's been him and I for the last year on the weekends. She disconnected completely from being a good wife and mother. In April she said she wanted a separation and I said no we need to get into marriage counseling. We did try that, but she was not very responsive and didn't give any effort. Afterward she was adamant about separation and divorce. I continued to say no and that we needed to save our family. She presented a separation agreement and I had to hire a lawyer. Because of the above behavior my lawyer suggested a private investigator. The investigator discovered my wife was having an affair with a close friend of the family who also is married with children. We know the extended families. I feel like I should tell this man's wife about what happened. This adultery has devastated me emotionally, I feel betrayed and I'm physically drained. I know my wife is passionate in terms of her sexuality, and I can't get the thought of them out of my head. It makes me question my own manhood, and I feel very inferior or that he must be a better lover or what ever. The problem is my wife pursued him. She would go to him and she lured him into this adultery. I felt this was coming for some time and could not stop it. She was not only lying to me but also to our son about what she was doing and where she was going. My family is important, my son loves her and as crazy as it sounds so do I. Can you respond with a course of action on how to proceed? I was still have a very huge place in my heart for her. so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Ahmed can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a spell for me. 28 hours later, my wife came to me and apolo[filtered]ed for the wrongs she did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I, my son and my wife are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Ahmed. as it is a place to resolve marriage/relationship issues, do you want to be sure if your spouse is being faithful to you or Do you want your Ex to come back to you Contact.: E-mail: Ahmedutimate@gmail.com or call/Whats-app: +2348160153829 save your crumbling home and change of grades its 100% safe. I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. David L. Ollis, 43yrs, UK

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16 days ago

Help on How to Get Your Ex wife/husband Back..
My wife and I have been married for 7 years on November 11th. She recently told me she wasn't in love with me that she loved me more like a friend. She said she wants a divorce that she has been unhappy for a year now. I've been not so good as far as making promises and not keeping them but I have been trying to change and it doesn't seem to work. I love my wife to death and I took my vowels very seriously. I asked her to go to marriage counciling and she said no.we have 4 kids. We agreed to a 2 month break and try to work things out after that. Some of the problems we face are not having our own place to live and may be debt pile up. I really want things to work. The hurt that I feel is killing me and I’m to the point where I don’t eat and rarely drink anything.one day i was online and there was one particular testimony I saw, it was about a woman called Silvia Soulez ,she testified about how Dr .Goodluck brought back her Ex lover in less than 17 hours and at the end of her testimony she drop Dr .Goodluck e-mail address. After reading all these,I decided to give Dr .Goodluck a try. I contacted him via email and explained my problems to him. In just the space of 17hours, my wife came back to me. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before. Dr .Goodluck is really a talented and gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man…If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve that problem for you. Try the great Dr .Goodluck today, he will be the answer to your problems. Here’s his contact:
Email him at: goodluck05spellcaster@gmail.com ,
Call him or add him on whats-app: +2348138654465
Or on His website: http://goodluck05spellcaster.yolasite.com
Tom Irwin, Manchester, United Kingdom

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about 1 month ago

Hey guys, Effective powerful love spell to get your ex lover back now.
I'm so excited of getting my husband back after he left me and our 3 kids for another woman.
After 2 years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. i felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before,All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr Unity real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com ,
you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348071622464 ,
his website:http://unityspelltemple.yolasite.com ,
Jessica, 26 years, Texas, USA .

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about 1 month ago

Hey guys, Effective powerful love spell to get your ex lover back now.
I'm so excited of getting my husband back after he left me and our 3 kids for another woman.
After 2 years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. i felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before,All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr Unity real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com ,
you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348071622464 ,
his website:http://unityspelltemple.yolasite.com ,
Jessica, 26 years, Texas, USA .

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4 months ago

Hey guys,I'm so excited my ex-husband is back after a breakup with the help of a real spell caster called Dr.Unity. I was going crazy when my husband breakup with me and left me for another woman!! All thanks to Dr Unity the best love spell caster online that helped me to bring back my husband today and restore happiness in my marriage.. I'm Sonia Williams by name i lives in England. My husband breakup with me and left me to be with another woman, and i wanted him back. I was so frustrated and i could not know what next to do again, I love my husband so much but he was cheating on me with another woman and this makes him break up with me so that he can be able to get married to the other lady and this lady i think use witchcraft on my husband to make him hate me and my kids and this was so critical and uncalled-for, I cry all day and night for God to send me a helper to get back my husband!! I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a spell for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me so much, Oh My God! i was so happy, and today i am happy with my man again and we are joyfully living together as one big family and i thank the powerful spell caster Dr.Unity, he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr Unity spell caster is best spell caster online who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and your lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com ,
you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348071622464 ,
his website:http://unityspelltemple.yolasite.com .