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Speech and Education of individuals with Language Impairment

children services schools disabilities

Communication skills are the foundation of academic and social performance. The ability to participate in active and interactive communication with peers and adults in the educational setting is essential for student success in school. Problems with speech or language development can lead to difficulties learning to listen, speak, read, or write. As a result, children with communication disorders may perform at a poor or insufficient academic level, struggle with reading, have difficulty understanding and expressing language, misunderstand social cues, avoid attending school, show poor judgment, or have difficulty with tests. Speech and language services can help children become effective communicators, problem solvers, and decision makers, allowing them to benefit from a more successful and satisfying educational experience as well as improved peer relationships.

The History of Speech and Language Services

Since their inception in the early twentieth century, speech and language services in the schools have undergone profound fundamental changes in scope and focus. Initially, speech correctionists, speech specialists, or speech teachers worked primarily with elementary school children who had mild to moderate speech impairments in the areas of articulation, fluency, and voice. Children with more severe disabilities were placed in private schools or institutions, or were not provided services at all. That is no longer the case, however, due to a number of social, political, and professional influences.

During the 1960s a number of state and federal laws were passed addressing the responsibility of public schools to provide an education to children with disabilities. Although a vast number of children with disabilities remained unidentified or inadequately educated according to Taylor, these laws served as the foundation, both legally and philosophically, for legislation passed in the 1970s that brought about profound and widespread changes in the responsibility that schools must accept in educating children with disabilities.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 was civil rights legislation that prohibited discrimination on the basis of disability in public or private programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance, including public education. This was followed in 1975 by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Pub. L. 94-142), requiring that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs. The act was amended in 1986 to ensure services for children from birth through age two, and to place that responsibility with public agencies. This expansion of special education services was accompanied by the Regular Education Initiative calling for a partnership between general and special education to eliminate barriers between disabled and nondisabled children.

In 1990 the act was reauthorized once again, this time as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), with a renewed focus on free appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. In the same year, the Americans with Disabilities Act was passed, mandating reasonable accommodations for disabilities across all public and private settings, including private and public schools.

The IDEA Amendments of 1997 (IDEA 1997) is designed to retain the basic rights and protections that have been in the law since 1975 while strengthening the focus on improving results for children with disabilities. The primary focus of IDEA 1997 is to establish an educational process that promotes meaningful access to the general curriculum for each student with a disability.

While landmark legislative initiatives were being enacted during the 1970s, an equally significant shift occurred in the professional domain with the expansion of scholarship in all language-related fields. This stimulated increased attention to disordered language as well as normal language acquisition, with a concomitant shift in the relative proportion of students receiving special services in the schools for language problems, as differentiated from speech problems. At the same time, there was an increase in awareness of the central role that language plays in academic achievement. The expanding learning disability movement had a significant impact on language services in schools, as a large proportion of services to students with learning disabilities focused on strengthening language skills. This was typically viewed as being within the purview of the speech-language clinician who was based in the school.

During the 1990s there was an increased awareness of the relationship between language and literacy (i.e., reading and writing). Language problems are both a cause and a consequence of literacy problems in children and adolescents. Spoken and written language have a reciprocal relationship–each builds on the other to result in general language and literacy competence, starting early and continuing through childhood into adulthood. Because of this, speech-language clinicians play important roles in ensuring that children gain access to appropriate instruction in reading, writing, and spelling. These roles include early identification and assessment, intervention, and development of literacy programs.

U.S. demographics have undergone rapid changes since the 1970s. It is now estimated that nearly one of every three Americans is African American, Hispanic, Asian American or Native American. In addition, according to the American Speech-Hearing Association's 1999 study, the limited-English-proficient population is the fastest growing population in America. This increase has resulted in a student population that is culturally and linguistically more diverse than ever before, and requires attention to such issues as nonbiased assessment and intervention considerations related to this diverse population.

Changes in the medical arena have also affected our nation's demographics. Medical advancements have led to more children surviving neonatal and early childhood traumas and illnesses, yet those who survive are often physically or medically challenged. Additionally, with health-care reform, many patients are released earlier from hospitals or rehabilitation centers; those who are school age may enter or reenter public schools requiring intensive speech-language services.

Programs in the Twenty-First Century

More than 1 million children receive services for speech or language disorders in public schools as of 2001, representing a 10.5 percent increase from the previous decade. In fact, speech-language intervention is the most common service provided for school children with disabilities. Caseloads include a wide range of disorders such as learning disabilities, autism, attention deficit disorder, stuttering, hearing loss, traumatic brain injury, specific language impairment, and cerebral palsy. Some children are medically fragile, have rare syndromes, or experience feeding and swallowing difficulties. In addition, children with speech or language disorders represent many racial and ethnic groups. The focus of intervention may include any or several components of speaking, listening, reading, or writing–language, voice, fluency, articulation, and/or swallowing.

Speech-language services are provided in the schools by approximately 35,000 speech-language clinicians. The credentials required of these professionals vary across states. These credentials may be teacher permits, teaching certificates, teacher licenses, or clinical service credentials. Also, credentials required for schools may differ from a state license that is required to practice speech-language pathology in nonschool settings. In addition, many school-based speech-language clinicians choose to obtain the certificate of clinical competence granted by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Some states allow the use of speech-language pathology assistants under the supervision of fully qualified speech-language clinicians.

School-based clinicians have a range of roles and responsibilities. Although the majority of their time is spent providing direct intervention services to children, they must also conduct screenings and diagnostic evaluations, write reports and documentation, plan and prepare sessions, meet and/or consult with teachers and parents, and conduct classroom observations of students. The scope of their responsibilities includes prevention of communication disorders as well as assessment and intervention.

Speech and language services involve cooperative efforts with others, including parents, audiologists, psychologists, social workers, special education teachers, classroom teachers, guidance counselors, physicians, dentists, and nurses. Speech-language clinicians work with teams to provide comprehensive language and speech assessments, and to develop and implement intervention plans. Intervention services may be provided in individual or small group sessions, in classrooms, in teams with teachers, or in a consultative model with teachers and parents. To be effective, communication goals should be educationally relevant, that is, integrated with academic and social activities. The ultimate outcome is to help children overcome their disabilities, achieve pride and self-esteem, participate fully in major life activities, and find meaningful roles in their lives.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION. 1999. Guidelines for the Roles and Responsibilities of the School-Based Speech-Language Pathologist. Rockville, MD: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION. 2000a. 2000 Omnibus Survey Caseload Report: SLP. Rockville, MD: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION. 2000b. 2000 Schools Survey Executive Summary. Rockville, MD: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION. 2000c. IDEA and Your Caseload: A Template for Eligibility and Dismissal Criteria for Students Ages 3 to 21. Rockville, MD: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN. 2000. Developing Educationally Relevant IEPs: A Technical Assistance Document for Speech-Language Pathologists. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

MOORE-BROWN, BARBARA J., and MONTGOMERY, JUDY K. 2001. Making a Difference for America's Children: Speech-Language Pathologists in Public Schools. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications.

TAYLOR, JOYCE S. 1992. Speech-Language Pathology Services in the Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 2000. Twenty-Second Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

KATHLEEN WHITMIRE

ERIN SPINELLO

ROSEANNE CLAUSEN

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over 1 year ago

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about 1 month ago

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about 1 month ago

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about 1 month ago

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2 months ago

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3 months ago

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3 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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9 months ago

HOW TO GET YOUR EX BACK WITH YOU NOW!!!
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10 months ago

Its so unfortunate that my husband left me after five years in marriage. thought he finally left the house in the third year of our marriage just because i was unable to conceive. i wonder what happened to Andrea Delacruz my husband that makes him leave the house. he is a God fearing person and very humble. i know that leaving me wasn't ordinary. we dated for seven months and i never notice such character in him before i married him. i cried and wept through my days and night because i really love Andrea Delacruz my husband. in the process of crying and thinking, i recall that his grand mom never support our marriage, she never wanted me to be married to the family. i never give up and i prayed for God to intervene. one a faithful day it was a Thursday morning when my fellow college in my working place noticed my attitude and behavior seems different from the real me and i never wanted to disclosed my Family issues but i shared with her my feeling and what i have been going through. she told me that something similar to these happened to her Elder sister and she told me that everything will be fine. she later invite me to her house to meet her elder sister then i opened up to her and she refers me to a man called Dr. Sambo and i did just as she said. i called Dr. Sambo immediately and he respond to my call in that moment and the first thing he said was 'WOMAN WOMAN' you have to believe and have faith that your problem will be solved. i asked, what should i do? then he said to me in two days time my husband will be back and i asked, Dr. Sambo is this going to be real? the last thing he said was that i will testify of his work. i did just as instructed and i watch for good forty-eight {48} hours. hmm-mm, it was a good night time at 10:05pm within the days that Dr. Sambo told me that my husband Andrea Delacruz will be back, at first i heard the bell rings getting close to my door i heard someone saying HONEY!!!, it sound familiar i opened the door and i saw my husband standing and weeping in front of me. i was not surprised because its all i have been praying for him to come back home. Guess what in six days after i noticed my system and my body temperature is changed and i went to clinic for check up and the doctor told me that there is life in me which means i am pregnant i really wants to use this opportunity to thanks Dr. Sambo so much and my lovely collage who directed me to Dr. Sambo if you have any problem or predicament that is worse or exactly like this you have been into, i plead you to contact Dr. Sambo

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11 months ago

Its so unfortunate that my husband left me after five years in marriage. thought he finally left the house in the third year of our marriage just because i was unable to conceive. i wonder what happened to Andrea Delacruz my husband that makes him leave the house. he is a God fearing person and very humble. i know that leaving me wasn't ordinary. we dated for seven months and i never notice such character in him before i married him. i cried and wept through my days and night because i really love Andrea Delacruz my husband. in the process of crying and thinking, i recall that his grand mom never support our marriage, she never wanted me to be married to the family. i never give up and i prayed for God to intervene. one a faithful day it was a Thursday morning when my fellow college in my working place noticed my attitude and behaviour seems different from the real me and i never wanted to disclosed my Family issues but i shared with her my feeling and what i have been going through. she told me that something similar to these happened to her Elder sister and she told me that everything will be fine. she later invite me to her house to meet her elder sister then i opened up to her and she refers me to a man called Dr. Sambo and i did just as she said. i called Dr. Sambo immediately and he respond to my call in that moment and the first thing he said was 'WOMAN WOMAN' you have to believe and have faith that your problem will be solved. i asked, what should i do? then he said to me in two days time my husband will be back and i asked, Dr. Sambo is this going to be real? the last thing he said was that i will testify of his work. i did just as instructed and i watch for good forty-eight {48} hours. hmmmm, it was a good night time at 10:05pm within the days that Dr. Sambo told me that my husband Andrea Delacruz will be back, at first i heard the bell rings getting close to my door i heard someone saying HONEY!!!, it sound familiar i opened the door and i saw my husband standing and weeping in front of me. i was not surprised because its all i have been praying for him to come back home. Guess what in six days after i noticed my system and my body temperature is changed and i went to clinic for check up and the doctor told me that there is life in me which means i am pregna i really wants to use this opportunity to thanks Dr. Sambo so much and my lovely collage who directed me to Dr. Sambo if you have any problem or predicament that is worse or exactly like this you have been into, i plead you to contact Dr. Sambo

Dr. Sambo E-MAIL: divinespellhome@gmail.com

Dr. Sambo PHONE: +2348145810121

( Go through his site for more details)
Indeed, he is a great and a lovely man, God bless him for uniting my family.

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12 months ago

I want to offer a bit of advice to anyone looking for help on how to get your Ex lover back after a breakup or divorce! Unityspelltemple@gmail.com is certainly the best spell caster, and his result is 100% guarantee.
After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr.Unity real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348071622464 ,you can also visit his website: https://unityspelltempe.blogspot.com .

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12 months ago

I want to offer a bit of advice to anyone looking for help on how to get your Ex lover back after a breakup or divorce! Unityspelltemple@gmail.com is certainly the best spell caster, and his result is 100% guarantee.
After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr.Unity real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348071622464 ,you can also visit his website: https://unityspelltempe.blogspot.com .

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over 5 years ago

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