Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.com » Education Encyclopedia

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.

A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.

Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.

Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.

Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.

School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

THIERRY G. KOLPIN

Kurt Hahn (1886–1974) [next] [back] Group Processes in the Classroom - Classroom as Group, A Social-Psychological View, Classroom Climate, Teaching Strategies

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

my name is koye kassa please i need information on the topic"principles of guidance and counseling" Ethiopia

Vote down Vote up

about 5 years ago

Please kindly help me I need some latest information about "Effectiveness of Guidance and Counseling in Elementary public School"

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

Can you please send me the relevance of Guidance and Counseling in pre-tertiary educational institution.

Vote down Vote up

almost 5 years ago

the hole thing about guidance and counseling has done a great positive impact to me as a student teacher.

Vote down Vote up

about 5 years ago

Please can you tell me about the history of guidance and counselling in schools in ghana

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

my name is Olabisi please i need information on this topic 'Evolution of guidance and counseling in Liberia'kindly send it to my email.

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

Please Kindly send me the latest definition for guidance and counselling. As of year 2000 to date. Thanks Hope to receive your mail soonest.

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

Hı everybody, I want to find articles about problems school counselor encounter especially in practice.But I have no enough articles and thesis.Please, send me about ıt.

mustafapamuk@firat.edu.tr

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

relate person centered theory of Carl Rogers to counseling in Nigeria particularly in classroom setting.

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

please,i need information onthe historical development of GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING in Nigeria.help send it to my email box

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz1mQXPyRY7

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

my name is koye kassa please i need information on the topic"principles of guidance and counseling" Ethiopia

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

can I ask for some materieals for Guidance and counseling for pre-school

Vote down Vote up

over 7 years ago

pls kindly send me complete defination of guidiance, counselling, History of guidiance and counselling[schools] and the uses or purpose of guidance and counselling in shools and other fields ia using this for my project in the university in nigeria thanks a lot

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

Carrying a research on constraints to effective performance of university student counselors in kenya, kindly provide relevant materials in this area from across the globe,Africa, the US,Asia and the pacific

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

I am from Philippines,assigned to make research why guidance and counseling never progress in my country.Can I have brilliant ideas,or any known issues from here?

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

please,i need information onthe historical development of GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING in Nigeria.help send it to my email box

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

Hı everybody, I want to find articles about problems school counselor encounter especially in practice.But I have no enough articles and thesis.Please, send me about ıt.

mustafapamuk@firat.edu.tr

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

HELP ME

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

I want to know more about the theories in counselling

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

my name is koye kassa please i need information on the topic"principles of guidance and counselling" Ethiopia

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education
Search All U.S. Universities

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.
A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.
Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.
School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

See also: ADOLESCENT PEER CULTURE, subentry on GANGS; PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL; RISK BEHAVIORS; ROGERS, CARL; VIOLENCE, CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz2gJc9BrIm

Vote down Vote up

over 7 years ago

Pls i am writing a project on this topic "the contribution of guidence and counselling in the fight against student dropout" i will need you to help me with relevant materials pls. send it through my mail box okahoduh@yahoo.co.uk i am a Nigerian thanks

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

THE EFFECT OF FAMILY STRUCTURE AND PARENTHOOD ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY STUDENTS

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

infor

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

i'm from srilanka .i 'm going to do dessertation of school counselling.can you give me more details for this?

Vote down Vote up

6 months ago

please i need the history of guidance and counseling from American experience to Nigerian experience . thanks

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education
Search All U.S. Universities

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.
A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.
Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.
School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

See also: ADOLESCENT PEER CULTURE, subentry on GANGS; PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL; RISK BEHAVIORS; ROGERS, CARL; VIOLENCE, CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz2gJc9BrIm

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

ineed information on the elucidate the development of guidance ans coundelling in lagos nigria africa and in diasporal

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

elucidate the development of guidance and counseling in Lagos,America,and the diaspora.

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

satisfactory

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

this is too boring

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

HELP ME

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

please l need to know some of the difficulties, challenges or problems a counselor are face with 6when offering guidance and counseling services.....

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

please help me with some tips or write up on,how can a counselor assist senior school graduates choose appropriate profession such as;education,law,medicine.send it to my email.thank you

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

Please send me more information on this, i am mainly interested in the area where career guidance doesn't only assist in someone identifying their strenghts/weakness and talent but also how one can use it in bridging the skills gap in a country where there's a shortage of skills but still nothing is forthcoming from the schools to adress this as everyone or most people are concerntrated in one feild

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

my name is koye kassa please i need information on the topic"principles of guidance and counseling" Ethiopia

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

my name is koye kassa please i need information on the topic"principles of guidance and counselling" Ethiopia

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

so good

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

pls in need more information on the histroy of guidance and counselling in Japan.

send via my E-mail

thanks

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

i am from nigeria pls i want some result about guidance and school counselling to be sand to my mail box adigun_james@yahoo.com

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

i do not think that that is awise question

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago


The 48 Laws of Power

by Robert Greene and Joost Elffers

Law 1

Never Outshine the Master

Always make those above you feel comfortably superior. In your desire to please or impress them, do not go too far in displaying your talents or you might accomplish the opposite – inspire fear and insecurity. Make your masters appear more brilliant than they are and you will attain the heights of power.

Law 2

Never put too Much Trust in Friends, Learn how to use Enemies

Be wary of friends-they will betray you more quickly, for they are easily aroused to envy. They also become spoiled and tyrannical. But hire a former enemy and he will be more loyal than a friend, because he has more to prove. In fact, you have more to fear from friends than from enemies. If you have no enemies, find a way to make them.

Law 3

Conceal your Intentions

Keep people off-balance and in the dark by never revealing the purpose behind your actions. If they have no clue what you are up to, they cannot prepare a defense. Guide them far enough down the wrong path, envelope them in enough smoke, and by the time they realize your intentions, it will be too late.

Law 4

Always Say Less than Necessary

When you are trying to impress people with words, the more you say, the more common you appear, and the less in control. Even if you are saying something banal, it will seem original if you make it vague, open-ended, and sphinxlike. Powerful people impress and intimidate by saying less. The more you say, the more likely you are to say something foolish.

Law 5

So Much Depends on Reputation – Guard it with your Life

Reputation is the cornerstone of power. Through reputation alone you can intimidate and win; once you slip, however, you are vulnerable, and will be attacked on all sides. Make your reputation unassailable. Always be alert to potential attacks and thwart them before they happen. Meanwhile, learn to destroy your enemies by opening holes in their own reputations. Then stand aside and let public opinion hang them.

Law 6

Court Attention at all Cost

Everything is judged by its appearance; what is unseen counts for nothing. Never let yourself get lost in the crowd, then, or buried in oblivion. Stand out. Be conspicuous, at all cost. Make yourself a magnet of attention by appearing larger, more colorful, more mysterious, than the bland and timid masses.

Law 7

Get others to do the Work for you, but Always Take the Credit

Use the wisdom, knowledge, and legwork of other people to further your own cause. Not only will such assistance save you valuable time and energy, it will give you a godlike aura of efficiency and speed. In the end your helpers will be forgotten and you will be remembered. Never do yourself what others can do for you.

Law 8

Make other People come to you – use Bait if Necessary

When you force the other person to act, you are the one in control. It is always better to make your opponent come to you, abandoning his own plans in the process. Lure him with fabulous gains – then attack. You hold the cards.

Law 9

Win through your Actions, Never through Argument

Any momentary triumph you think gained through argument is really a Pyrrhic victory: The resentment and ill will you stir up is stronger and lasts longer than any momentary change of opinion. It is much more powerful to get others to agree with you through your actions, without saying a word. Demonstrate, do not explicate.

Law 10

Infection: Avoid the Unhappy and Unlucky

You can die from someone else’s misery – emotional states are as infectious as disease. You may feel you are helping the drowning man but you are only precipitating your own disaster. The unfortunate sometimes draw misfortune on themselves; they will also draw it on you. Associate with the happy and fortunate instead.

Law 11

Learn to Keep People Dependent on You

To maintain your independence you must always be needed and wanted. The more you are relied on, the more freedom you have. Make people depend on you for their happiness and prosperity and you have nothing to fear. Never teach them enough so that they can do without you.

Law 12

Use Selective Honesty and Generosity to Disarm your Victim

One sincere and honest move will cover over dozens of dishonest ones. Open-hearted gestures of honesty and generosity bring down the guard of even the most suspicious people. Once your selective honesty opens a hole in their armor, you can deceive and manipulate them at will. A timely gift – a Trojan horse – will serve the same purpose.

Law 13

When Asking for Help, Appeal to People’s Self-Interest,

Never to their Mercy or Gratitude

If you need to turn to an ally for help, do not bother to remind him of your past assistance and good deeds. He will find a way to ignore you. Instead, uncover something in your request, or in your alliance with him, that will benefit him, and emphasize it out of all proportion. He will respond enthusiastically when he sees something to be gained for himself.

Law 14

Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy

Knowing about your rival is critical. Use spies to gather valuable information that will keep you a step ahead. Better still: Play the spy yourself. In polite social encounters, learn to probe. Ask indirect questions to get people to reveal their weaknesses and intentions. There is no occasion that is not an opportunity for artful spying.

Law 15

Crush your Enemy Totally

All great leaders since Moses have known that a feared enemy must be crushed completely. (Sometimes they have learned this the hard way.) If one ember is left alight, no matter how dimly it smolders, a fire will eventually break out. More is lost through stopping halfway than through total annihilation: The enemy will recover, and will seek revenge. Crush him, not only in body but in spirit.

Law 16

Use Absence to Increase Respect and Honor

Too much circulation makes the price go down: The more you are seen and heard from, the more common you appear. If you are already established in a group, temporary withdrawal from it will make you more talked about, even more admired. You must learn when to leave. Create value through scarcity.

Law 17

Keep Others in Suspended Terror: Cultivate an Air of Unpredictability

Humans are creatures of habit with an insatiable need to see familiarity in other people’s actions. Your predictability gives them a sense of control. Turn the tables: Be deliberately unpredictable. Behavior that seems to have no consistency or purpose will keep them off-balance, and they will wear themselves out trying to explain your moves. Taken to an extreme, this strategy can intimidate and terrorize.

Law 18

Do Not Build Fortresses to Protect Yourself – Isolation is Dangerous

The world is dangerous and enemies are everywhere – everyone has to protect themselves. A fortress seems the safest. But isolation exposes you to more dangers than it protects you from – it cuts you off from valuable information, it makes you conspicuous and an easy target. Better to circulate among people find allies, mingle. You are shielded from your enemies by the crowd.

Law 19

Know Who You’re Dealing with – Do Not Offend the Wrong Person

There are many different kinds of people in the world, and you can never assume that everyone will react to your strategies in the same way. Deceive or outmaneuver some people and they will spend the rest of their lives seeking revenge. They are wolves in lambs’ clothing. Choose your victims and opponents carefully, then – never offend or deceive the wrong person.

Law 20

Do Not Commit to Anyone

It is the fool who always rushes to take sides. Do not commit to any side or cause but yourself. By maintaining your independence, you become the master of others – playing people against one another, making them pursue you.

Law 21

Play a Sucker to Catch a Sucker – Seem Dumber than your Mark

No one likes feeling stupider than the next persons. The trick, is to make your victims feel smart – and not just smart, but smarter than you are. Once convinced of this, they will never suspect that you may have ulterior motives.

Law 22

Use the Surrender Tactic: Transform Weakness into Power

When you are weaker, never fight for honor’s sake; choose surrender instead. Surrender gives you time to recover, time to torment and irritate your conqueror, time to wait for his power to wane. Do not give him the satisfaction of fighting and defeating you – surrender first. By turning the other check you infuriate and unsettle him. Make surrender a tool of power.

Law 23

Concentrate Your Forces

Conserve your forces and energies by keeping them concentrated at their strongest point. You gain more by finding a rich mine and mining it deeper, than by flitting from one shallow mine to another – intensity defeats extensity every time. When looking for sources of power to elevate you, find the one key patron, the fat cow who will give you milk for a long time to come.

Law 24

Play the Perfect Courtier

The perfect courtier thrives in a world where everything revolves around power and political dexterity. He has mastered the art of indirection; he flatters, yields to superiors, and asserts power over others in the mot oblique and graceful manner. Learn and apply the laws of courtiership and there will be no limit to how far you can rise in the court.

Law 25

Re-Create Yourself

Do not accept the roles that society foists on you. Re-create yourself by forging a new identity, one that commands attention and never bores the audience. Be the master of your own image rather than letting others define if for you. Incorporate dramatic devices into your public gestures and actions – your power will be enhanced and your character will seem larger than life.

Law 26

Keep Your Hands Clean

You must seem a paragon of civility and efficiency: Your hands are never soiled by mistakes and nasty deeds. Maintain such a spotless appearance by using others as scapegoats and cat’s-paws to disguise your involvement.

Law 27

Play on People’s Need to Believe to Create a Cultlike Following

People have an overwhelming desire to believe in something. Become the focal point of such desire by offering them a cause, a new faith to follow. Keep your words vague but full of promise; emphasize enthusiasm over rationality and clear thinking. Give your new disciples rituals to perform, ask them to make sacrifices on your behalf. In the absence of organized religion and grand causes, your new belief system will bring you untold power.

Law 28

Enter Action with Boldness

If you are unsure of a course of action, do not attempt it. Your doubts and hesitations will infect your execution. Timidity is dangerous: Better to enter with boldness. Any mistakes you commit through audacity are easily corrected with more audacity. Everyone admires the bold; no one honors the timid.

Law 29

Plan All the Way to the End

The ending is everything. Plan all the way to it, taking into account all the possible consequences, obstacles, and twists of fortune that might reverse your hard work and give the glory to others. By planning to the end you will not be overwhelmed by circumstances and you will know when to stop. Gently guide fortune and help determine the future by thinking far ahead.

Law 30

Make your Accomplishments Seem Effortless

Your actions must seem natural and executed with ease. All the toil and practice that go into them, and also all the clever tricks, must be concealed. When you act, act effortlessly, as if you could do much more. Avoid the temptation of revealing how hard you work – it only raises questions. Teach no one your tricks or they will be used against you.

Law 31

Control the Options: Get Others to Play with the Cards you Deal

The best deceptions are the ones that seem to give the other person a choice: Your victims feel they are in control, but are actually your puppets. Give people options that come out in your favor whichever one they choose. Force them to make choices between the lesser of two evils, both of which serve your purpose. Put them on the horns of a dilemma: They are gored wherever they turn.

Law 32

Play to People’s Fantasies

The truth is often avoided because it is ugly and unpleasant. Never appeal to truth and reality unless you are prepared for the anger that comes for disenchantment. Life is so harsh and distressing that people who can manufacture romance or conjure up fantasy are like oases in the desert: Everyone flocks to them. There is great power in tapping into the fantasies of the masses.

Law 33

Discover Each Man’s Thumbscrew

Everyone has a weakness, a gap in the castle wall. That weakness is usual y an insecurity, an uncontrollable emotion or need; it can also be a small secret pleasure. Either way, once found, it is a thumbscrew you can turn to your advantage.

Law 34

Be Royal in your Own Fashion: Act like a King to be treated like one

The way you carry yourself will often determine how you are treated; In the long run, appearing vulgar or common will make people disrespect you. For a king respects himself and inspires the same sentiment in others. By acting regally and confident of your powers, you make yourself seem destined to wear a crown.

Law 35

Master the Art of Timing

Never seem to be in a hurry – hurrying betrays a lack of control over yourself, and over time. Always seem patient, as if you know that everything will come to you eventually. Become a detective of the right moment; sniff out the spirit of the times, the trends that will carry you to power. Learn to stand back when the time is not yet ripe, and to strike fiercely when it has reached fruition.

Law 36

Disdain Things you cannot have: Ignoring them is the best Revenge

By acknowledging a petty problem you give it existence and credibility. The more attention you pay an enemy, the stronger you make him; and a small mistake is often made worse and more visible when you try to fix it. It is sometimes best to leave things alone. If there is something you want but cannot have, show contempt for it. The less interest you reveal, the more superior you seem.

Law 37

Create Compelling Spectacles

Striking imagery and grand symbolic gestures create the aura of power – everyone responds to them. Stage spectacles for those around you, then full of arresting visuals and radiant symbols that heighten your presence. Dazzled by appearances, no one will notice what you are really doing.

Law 38

Think as you like but Behave like others

If you make a show of going against the times, flaunting your unconventional ideas and unorthodox ways, people will think that you only want attention and that you look down upon them. They will find a way to punish you for making them feel inferior. It is far safer to blend in and nurture the common touch. Share your originality only with tolerant friends and those who are sure to appreciate your uniqueness.

Law 39

Stir up Waters to Catch Fish

Anger and emotion are strategically counterproductive. You must always stay calm and objective. But if you can make your enemies angry while staying calm yourself, you gain a decided advantage. Put your enemies off-balance: Find the chink in their vanity through which you can rattle them and you hold the strings.

Law 40

Despise the Free Lunch

What is offered for free is dangerous – it usually involves either a trick or a hidden obligation. What has worth is worth paying for. By paying your own way you stay clear of gratitude, guilt, and deceit. It is also often wise to pay the full price – there is no cutting corners with excellence. Be lavish with your money and keep it circulating, for generosity is a sign and a magnet for power.

Law 41

Avoid Stepping into a Great Man’s Shoes

What happens first always appears better and more original than what comes after. If you succeed a great man or have a famous parent, you will have to accomplish double their achievements to outshine them. Do not get lost in their shadow, or stuck in a past not of your own making: Establish your own name and identity by changing course. Slay the overbearing father, disparage his legacy, and gain power by shining in your own way.

Law 42

Strike the Shepherd and the Sheep will Scatter

Trouble can often be traced to a single strong individual – the stirrer, the arrogant underling, the poisoned of goodwill. If you allow such people room to operate, others will succumb to their influence. Do not wait for the troubles they cause to multiply, do not try to negotiate with them – they are irredeemable. Neutralize their influence by isolating or banishing them. Strike at the source of the trouble and the sheep will scatter.

Law 43

Work on the Hearts and Minds of Others

Coercion creates a reaction that will eventually work against you. You must seduce others into wanting to move in your direction. A person you have seduced becomes your loyal pawn. And the way to seduce others is to operate on their individual psychologies and weaknesses. Soften up the resistant by working on their emotions, playing on what they hold dear and what they fear. Ignore the hearts and minds of others and they will grow to hate you.

Law 44

Disarm and Infuriate with the Mirror Effect

The mirror reflects reality, but it is also the perfect tool for deception: When you mirror your enemies, doing exactly as they do, they cannot figure out your strategy. The Mirror Effect mocks and humiliates them, making them overreact. By holding up a mirror to their psyches, you seduce them with the illusion that you share their values; by holding up a mirror to their actions, you teach them a lesson. Few can resist the power of Mirror Effect.

Law 45

Preach the Need for Change, but Never Reform too much at Once

Everyone understands the need for change in the abstract, but on the day-to-day level people are creatures of habit. Too much innovation is traumatic, and will lead to revolt. If you are new to a position of power, or an outsider trying to build a power base, make a show of respecting the old way of doing things. If change is necessary, make it feel like a gentle improvement on the past.

Law 46

Never appear too Perfect

Appearing better than others is always dangerous, but most dangerous of all is to appear to have no faults or weaknesses. Envy creates silent enemies. It is smart to occasionally display defects, and admit to harmless vices, in order to deflect envy and appear more human and approachable. Only gods and the dead can seem perfect with impunity.

Law 47

Do not go Past the Mark you Aimed for; In Victory, Learn when to Stop

The moment of victory is often the moment of greatest peril. In the heat of victory, arrogance and overconfidence can push you past the goal you had aimed for, and by going too far, you make more enemies than you defeat. Do not allow success to go to your head. There is no substitute for strategy and careful planning. Set a goal, and when you reach it, stop.

Law 48

Assume Formlessness

By taking a shape, by having a visible plan, you open yourself to attack. Instead of taking a form for your enemy to grasp, keep yourself adaptable and on the move. Accept the fact that nothing is certain and no law is fixed. The best way to protect yourself is to be as fluid and formless as water; never bet on stability or lasting order. Everything changes.










Vote down Vote up

over 8 years ago

i am from nigeria pls i want some result about guidance and school counselling to be sand to my mail box

at ken.love17@yahoo.com

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers in Hyderabad @
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-hyderabad/
Packers and Movers in Bangalore @
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-bangalore/
Packers and Movers in Chennai @
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-chennai/
Packers and Movers in Pune @
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-pune/
Packers and Movers in Mumbai @
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-mumbai/
Packers and Movers in Delhi @
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-delhi/
Packers and Movers in Gurgaon @
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-gurgaon/

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago


Am Rose mark from Canada If you want to adopt a child you don't need to stress your self,l was married for good 6years l don't have a child and doctor told me that there is noting l can do about it,my friend now told me how she adopt a child through this St JOHN ORPHANAGE HOME is the best adoption center they can help you to adopt your child with out stress,if you are interesting in adopting a child just email them now on:stjoneorphanagehome@yahoo.com or call us on:+234 7067607073 for more information.

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education
Search All U.S. Universities

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.
A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.
Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.
School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

See also: ADOLESCENT PEER CULTURE, subentry on GANGS; PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL; RISK BEHAVIORS; ROGERS, CARL; VIOLENCE, CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz2gJc9BrIm

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education
Search All U.S. Universities

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.
A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.
Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.
School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

See also: ADOLESCENT PEER CULTURE, subentry on GANGS; PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL; RISK BEHAVIORS; ROGERS, CARL; VIOLENCE, CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz2gJc9BrIm

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education
Search All U.S. Universities

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.
A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.
Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.
School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

See also: ADOLESCENT PEER CULTURE, subentry on GANGS; PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL; RISK BEHAVIORS; ROGERS, CARL; VIOLENCE, CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz2gJc9BrIm

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education
Search All U.S. Universities

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.
A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.
Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.
School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

See also: ADOLESCENT PEER CULTURE, subentry on GANGS; PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL; RISK BEHAVIORS; ROGERS, CARL; VIOLENCE, CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz2gJc9BrIm

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Please I want to study guidance and counseling in my masters programme, I was asked to state my purpose of study please help me

Vote down Vote up

about 4 years ago

i am a practicing counselor and i don't have much knowledge regarding affects of teenage pregnancy and substance abuse.

Vote down Vote up

over 4 years ago

information about guidance and counseling to a secondary school teacher.

Vote down Vote up

almost 5 years ago

Am training to be a counselor. this information is good.
student at mukono university kampala Uganda.

Vote down Vote up

about 5 years ago

please i need information on guidance and counseling and students performance.

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

the laws of power are very clear but can you please send me some of the challenges a social worker faces during counseling

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

I am really impressed by this material.I am from Ethiopia working at University of Gondar as Guidance and Counselor.But in our country the educational policy has not special support for counselors to give services for students.Any ways i would like say thank for this material and initiation.

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

i need principles of counseling as postulated by Carl rogers

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

i am godwin from tanzania. i tend to do a research on counselling needs to reduct early pregnancy students. kindnly sed me articals and thesis concerning the topic.

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

my name is beryl,please i need information on this topic 'establishment and running of counseling school center in Kenya'please send it to my email.

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

Hello! I'm from the Philippines.



Just wanna know what is the place of guidance in industry and in the government.... I really need it! Please send me through my e-mail add.



Thanks in advance

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

Hello! I'm from the Philippines.



Just wanna know what is the place of guidance in industry and in the government.... I really need it! Please send me through my e-mail add.



Thanks in advance

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

kindly send me a complete history and goal of guidance and counseling in USA and also nature, goal and functions of the different guidance services.

Vote down Vote up

2 months ago

Please help me understand what Kenyan Secondary School Guidance and Counseling program can borrow from other Countries to improve its guidance and counseling.

Vote down Vote up

about 1 year ago

It's very interesting

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

I need the fundamental factors that lead to the Introduction of guidance and counselling in America

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

I NEED A PAPER WHICH IS CONDUCTED ON THE EFFECTS OF ORGASM ON FEMALE SATISFACTION

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers Pune @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
Packers and Movers Mumbai @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
Packers and Movers Bangalore @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
Packers and Movers Chennai @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/
Packers and Movers Hyderabad @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
Packers and Movers in Delhi @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers Gurgaon @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
Packers and Movers Delhi @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
Packers and Movers Noida @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
Packers and Movers Faridabad @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
Packers and Movers Ghaziabad @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/
Packers and Movers India @ http://list5th.in/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Good day, please I need more information on these topics: "How can a Vocational Guidance expert posted to a School, effectively administers Vocational Guidance programme".
"What are the Curricular and Research issues imbedded in Vocational Guidance" .
please can you help send to my mail: ajcyber2020@gmail.com
Thanks

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

i have appreciated the information about guiding and counseling in school context

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Am in pressed

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

i am so much interested in your document because it contains vital information.
i am currently a Master of Arts student in Guidance and Counseling in education, please, i need a enough materials for my thesis on 'Effectiveness of guidance and counseling program in the junior secondary school: An assessment.' Kindly sent them through my email: benyi.elijah@yahoo.com

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

i am so much interested in your document because it contains vital information.
i am currently a Master of Arts student in Guidance and Counseling in education, please, i need a enough materials for my thesis on 'Effectiveness of guidance and counseling program in the junior secondary school: An assessment.' Kindly sent them through my email: benyi.elijah@yahoo.com

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

i am so much interested in your document because it contains vital information.
i am currently a Master of Arts student in Guidance and Counseling in education, please, i need a enough materials for my thesis on 'Effectiveness of guidance and counseling program in the junior secondary school: An assessment.' Kindly sent them through my email: benyi.elijah@yahoo.com

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

i am so much interested in your document because it contains vital information.
i am currently a Master of Arts student in Guidance and Counseling in education, please, i need a enough materials for my thesis on 'Effectiveness of guidance and counseling program in the junior secondary school: An assessment.' Kindly sent them through my email: benyi.elijah@yahoo.com

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

good

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

How about the history of using program in Guidance Information System

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago


How about the history of Guidance information system using programs? It's all about the use of system

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

role of media in the organication and administration of guidance service in the schools

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education
Search All U.S. Universities

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.
A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.
Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.
School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

See also: ADOLESCENT PEER CULTURE, subentry on GANGS; PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL; RISK BEHAVIORS; ROGERS, CARL; VIOLENCE, CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz2gJc9BrIm

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education
Search All U.S. Universities

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.
A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.
Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.
School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

See also: ADOLESCENT PEER CULTURE, subentry on GANGS; PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL; RISK BEHAVIORS; ROGERS, CARL; VIOLENCE, CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz2gJc9BrIm

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

counselors counselor students education
Search All U.S. Universities

School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another. Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future.
A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the 1890s with the social reform movement. The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society. The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. His work with the Civic Service House led to the development of the Boston Vocation Bureau. In 1909 the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools. The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By 1918 there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China. Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda.

The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions. These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U.S. public education. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by 1918 more than 900 high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors. Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities.

The 1920s and 1930s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs. Not until 1938, after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.

After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers. Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" (later called "client-centered") counseling. Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy in 1942 and Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was enacted, providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers. Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. Additionally, in the 1950s the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed, furthering the professional identity of the school counselor.

The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his 1962 book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors. The 1960s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.

In the 1970s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975.

The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. Counselors started finding themselves as gatekeepers to Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Student Study Teams (SST) as well as consultants to special education teachers, especially after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990.

The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development. The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Major Roles and Functions for School Counselors

The roles of a school counselor are somewhat different at various grade levels.

Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms–thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies. Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community. Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings.

Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems–personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem. Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches. The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
Training Requirements

The requirements for the credentialing (in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement) of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education (i.e., completion of some graduate-level course work), with forty-five states and the District of Columbia requiring a master's degree in counseling and guidance or a related field. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from 200 to 700, in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.

Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check.
Issues Major Trends and Controversies

Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

Evaluation. A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early 1970s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques.

The National Standards for Professional School Counselors was adopted by ASCA in 1997. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors. The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student–counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1,250 to a low of about 400, so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking.

Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred. There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Gangs. Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders–an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity.

Dropouts. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.

Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant.

Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth. Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school.

School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Diversity. Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs.

Child abuse. Many states have mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse. Students in all grades are susceptible to abuse by others, and the counselor is often the first person to discover these deplorable acts and then report them to the proper authorities.

Terrorism. Terrorism is becoming an increasingly difficult problem in the world of the early twenty-first century. Children are affected, directly and indirectly, by both massive and small-scale acts of terrorism. Counselors are able to ascertain the extent to which a student or teacher may be adversely affected by terrorist acts. In these cases the counselor can either intervene or direct the person to more intensive interventions.
School Counseling around the World

How are other countries providing counseling? It is clear that school counseling has made significant progress in the United States. Political, social, and cultural factors are deeply embedded in the way a given country addresses the educational needs of its populace. Following are brief examples of how school counseling is practiced in some other countries.

In Japan, the goal of high school counseling is to "help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision-making, life planning, and action-taking to be able to adjust in the career options he or she decides to pursue" (Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr, p. 101). In France, secondary school counseling was started in 1922 and by the late 1930s was adopted by the educational system and seen as a necessary part of the institution. School counselors assist students with vocational guidance.

In Thailand, school counseling often incorporates advice-giving by teachers. In Israel, school counselors devote one-third of their time to classroom instruction and the rest to personal and social counseling. Career counseling is somewhat curtailed because students are required to enlist with the armed services after high school. In Hong Kong, school counseling and guidance is becoming more of a service that is incorporated into the whole school with an emphasis on prevention. Turkey has a fifty-year history of counseling development. There is a professional association that publishes a journal and sponsors conferences. Many secondary schools have counseling services and receive support from the Ministry of National Education.

All countries benefit from professional dialogue and a continual exchange of information. In Europe the Transnational Network of National Resource Centres for Vocational Guidance was established to share information, include businesses and social agencies, and improve counseling methods and materials. The Internet is being used widely as a mechanism for disseminating information. Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Slovak Republic, and Norway are among many countries using the web to make career and counseling information available to guidance experts. As school counseling continues to define itself as a profession and to show its usefulness empirically, counseling services in schools are likely to expand worldwide in an effort to improve everyone's life satisfaction.

See also: ADOLESCENT PEER CULTURE, subentry on GANGS; PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL; RISK BEHAVIORS; ROGERS, CARL; VIOLENCE, CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEMAK, FRED. 2000. "Transforming the Role of the Counselor to Provide Leadership in Educational Reform through Collaboration." Professional School Counseling 3:323–331.

BREWER, JOHN M. 1918. The Vocational Guidance Movement: Its Problems and Possibilities. New York: Macmillan.

BURNHAM, JOY JONES, and JACKSON, C. MARIE. 2000. "School Counselor Roles: Discrepancies between Actual Practice and Existing Models." Professional School Counseling 4:41–49.

CAMPBELL, CHARI A., and DAHIR, CAROL A. 1997. Sharing the Vision: The National Standards for School Counseling Programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

DAHIR, CAROL A. 2001. "The National Standards for School Counseling Programs: Development and Implementation." Professional School Counseling 4:320–327.

DOGAN, SULEYMAN. 1999. "The Historical Development of Counseling in Turkey." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:51–67.

FAUST, VERNE. 1968. History of Elementary School Counseling: Overview and Critique. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

GIBSON, ROBERT L. ; MITCHELL, MARIANNE H.; and HIGGINS, ROBERT E. 1983. Development and Management of Counseling Programs and Guidance Services. New York: Macmillan.

GINN, S. J. 1924. "Vocational Guidance in Boston Public Schools." Vocational Guidance Magazine 3:3–7.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 1994. Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C., and HENDERSON, PATRICIA. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.

GYSBERS, NORMAN C. ; LAPEN, RICHARD T.; and JONES, BRUCE ANTHONY. 2000. "School Board Policies for Guidance and Counseling: A Call to Action." Professional School Counseling 3:349–355.

HUI, EADAOIN K. P. 2000. "Guidance as a Whole School Approach in Hong Kong: From Remediation to Student Development." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 22:69–82.

ISAACS, MADELYN L. ; GREENE, MARCI; and VALESKY, THOMAS. 1998. "Elementary Counselors and Inclusion: A Statewide Attitudinal Survey." Professional School Counseling 2:68–76.

KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D. 1974. "An Accountability Model for Counselors." Personnel and Guidance Journal 52:639–646.

LUM, CHRISTIE. 2001. A Guide to State Laws and Regulations on Professional School Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

MALLET, PASCAL, and PATY, BENJAMIN. 1999. "How French Counselors Treat School Violence: An Adult-Centered Approach." International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 21:279–300.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1942. Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

ROGERS, CARL D. 1951. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

SCHMIDT, JOHN J. 1996. Counseling in Schools, 2nd edition. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster.

SCORZELLI, JAMES F., and REINKE-SCORZELLI, MARY. 2001. "Cultural Sensitivity and Cognitive Therapy in Thailand." Journal of Mental Health Counseling 23 (1):85–92.

TATAR, MOSHE. 2000. "Kind of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors." Professional School Counseling 4:140–147.

WATANABE-MURAOKA, A. MIEKO; SENZAKI, T.-A. T.; and HERR, EDWIN L. 2001. "Donald Super's Contribution to Career Guidance and Counseling in Japan." International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 1:99–106.

WRENN, C. GILBERT. 1962. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington, DC: American Personnel and Guidance Association.

JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

Read more: Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors, Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2023/Guidance-Counseling-School.html#ixzz2gJc9BrIm

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Please I want to study guidance and counseling in my masters programme, I was asked to state my purpose of study please help me

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

i would like to learn the articles or materials of the status of counseling on Italy. would you gives me somes needy. many thanks first...

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

help me to find the reaction about the guidance in school, industries and government agencies.

Vote down Vote up

over 4 years ago

information about guidance and counseling to a secondary school teacher.

Vote down Vote up

over 4 years ago

information about guidance and counseling to a secondary school teacher.

Vote down Vote up

over 4 years ago

Thanks,but Im so appreciate to study abroad for master degree of guidance and counselling.Origionally from poor family in Africa particulary in Tanzania

Vote down Vote up

over 4 years ago

frst yrs assignment GC122 CLICK Here

Vote down Vote up

over 4 years ago

Its so great,could you please send details/ comprehensive on counselling practicum and Biology of behavior 5 work stress.

Vote down Vote up

over 4 years ago

what is the year of publication and the authors name for this site?

Vote down Vote up

almost 5 years ago

My project is on guidance and counseling as a strategy to fight HIV / aids. Is there literature on this topic. Pls send to my e-mail address

Vote down Vote up

almost 5 years ago

the hole thing about guidance and counseling has done a great positive impact to me as a student teacher.

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

guidance counselling is really helpful specially for those students who are in despair or stressed.

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

What are the major theorie of guidance and conseling?

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

it is nice

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

HELP ME

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

presently im enrolled in guidance and counseling of children with special needs it will be a great help if you can send me via email handouts on these course?? i'd really appreciate further information on its history not only in the U.S. but in the Philippines as well. Thanks a lot

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

I need the more note of guidance and counselling

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

hi, i need information on the 1.the emergency of guidance and counselling in school in the twenty first century.
2. the major goals of school counselling at that time
3. major development during this period

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

so good