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Constitutional & Legal Foundations

Title One, Chapter One, Article Three of the Constitution of Mexico outlines the Mexican educational philosophy: the education imparted by the State shall be designed to develop harmoniously all the faculties of the human being and shall foster in him at the same time a love of country and a consciousness of international solidarity, in independence and justice. Section I of Article Three provides the philosophy that separates religion and education, long a point of friction in Mexican society. Article 24 guarantees freedom of religious beliefs: the standard that shall guide such education shall be maintained entirely apart from any religious doctrine and, based on the results of scientific progress, shall strive against ignorance and its effects, servitudes, fanaticism, and prejudices. Moreover, education shall:

  • be democratic, considering democracy not only as a legal structure and a political regimen, but as a system of life founded on a constant economic, social, and cultural betterment of the people;
  • be national insofar as without hostility or exclusiveness it shall achieve the understanding of our problems, the utilization of our resources, the defense of our political independence, the assurance of our economic independence, and the continuity and growth of our culture; and
  • be a contributor to better human relationships, not only with the elements that it contributes toward strengthening and at the same time inculcating, together with respect for the dignity of the person and the integrity of the family, but also by the care that it devotes to the ideals of brotherhood and equality of rights of all men, avoiding privileges of race, creed, class, sex, or persons.

Section IV states that all education provided by the State shall be free. Section VI addresses private versus public education: private persons may engage in education of all kinds and grades. But with regards to elementary, secondary, and normal education, they must previously obtain, in every case, the express authorization of the State. This section also requires that all private educational institutions conform to the provisions of Sections I and II and must be in harmony with official plans and programs.

Article Three, Clause Three, provides for compulsory (primary and secondary) education for all Mexican citizens. The final section (VIII) provides for federal oversight of curricula throughout Mexico: The Congress of the Union, with a view to unifying and coordinating education throughout the Republic, shall issue the necessary laws for dividing the social function of education among the Federation, the States, and the Municipalities; for fixing the appropriate financial allocations for this public service; and for establishing the penalties applicable to officials who do not comply with or enforce the pertinent provisions.

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Education - Free Encyclopedia Search EngineGlobal Education ReferenceMexico - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education