Constitutional & Legal Foundations
Luxembourg became an independent grand duchy in 1890 when the male line of the royal house of Nassau-Orange came to an end with the death Dutch King William III, leaving only his daughter, Wilhelmina, to succeed him. In accordance with Article Three of the Luxembourg Constitution, the Crown was hereditary in the Nassau Family in the male line and excluded female descent. The Crown of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg passed to the senior branch of the Nassau family, Adolphe of Nassau-Weilbourg, who became Grand Duke Adolphe I of Luxembourg. Ironically, the male line of the Weilbourg branch of the Nassau family ended in 1912, with the death of Grand Duke William IV. Anticipating this political crisis, the Constitution of Luxembourg was changed in 1907, to permit one of William IV's six daughters to succeed him.
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy with executive authority placed in the hands of the Grand Duke Henri since 2000, ensuring the laws of the nation are carried into effect and order maintained. Legislative power is shared between the Grand Duke and an elected Chamber of Deputies. All legislation must be signed by the Grand Duke to become law. Judicial authority is invested in the courts of law. The Constitution of Luxembourg guarantees the rights of citizens. Among these public rights as stated in Article Twenty-Three of the Constitution is the right that education be compulsory and provided free of charge by the state. The Constitution further stipulates that the state must organize free vocational training courses, secondary educational establishments, and the necessary courses in higher education. The law requires the state to finance education and share supervisory authority with the communes (municipalities). The Government is responsible for regulating all educational matters and creating a fund to educate the exceptionally gifted. Each Luxembourger is free to pursue studies in the Grand Duchy or abroad and to attend universities of choice subject to the provisions of the law relating to admission to employment and career choice.
Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.comGlobal Education ReferenceLuxembourg - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education