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Teaching Profession

As the Soviet system of central governance came under attack, enthusiastic teachers created a Union of Teachers to promote innovative ideas in instruction, school organization, and school democratization. As the economy deteriorated in the 1990s, teachers stopped getting salaries on a regular basis and often had to work two jobs to survive. As a result of this, the unions re-focused their efforts from reforming education to mainly economic issues.

The teacher education programs are concentrated in co-educational universities and in pedagogical institutes, including the only one for women (Kazakh State Pedagogical Institute for Women), with a four- to five-year-course of study. The curriculum requires an intensive program of study in subject matter, pedagogical and psychological disciplines, and a practicum, which begins in the first year of their studies. The instructional methods heavily rely on lectures and seminars. After graduation, young specialists are hired on a one-year probation. Students can choose a double major. The two-year pedagogical schools prepare nurses and teachers for nurseries and kindergartens. The graduates may continue their education at the pedagogical institutes in the third year of the program. Each of the 14 administrative states has an in-service training institute for teachers who must upgrade their teaching certificate every five years.

Teachers' salaries are lower than those in many other career areas, especially in the private sector. Sometimes, delays in salary delivery last for several months; therefore, many teachers have left their jobs. In 1996, there were more than 23,000 vacancies in public schools. Schools experience shortages with foreign language teachers because many of them left for international joint venture companies.

Additional topics

Education - Free Encyclopedia Search EngineGlobal Education ReferenceKazakhstan - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education