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Vietnam - Summary

Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.comGlobal Education ReferenceVietnam - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education


Despite the requisite qualifications and training prescribed by the Ministry of Education, a large number of schools have at least part of its teaching staff without adequate training or qualifications. This is particularly so in the mountainous and remote areas, where city and townbred senior school graduates are reluctant to serve. The same is true for many primary schools where, as stated before, there is a serious shortage of teachers. The enrollment in the primary schools across the country has outpaced the numbers of qualified persons willing to enter the teaching profession at that level.

By the end of the last century, U.S.-Vietnam relations had come full-circle with the establishment of full diplomatic relations in 1995 between the two former foes, admission of Vietnam (with U.S. support) as a full member of the pro-West Association of Southeast Asian nations (ASEAN), the bilateral trade greement between Vietnam and the United States, and a four-day visit by President Clinton to Vietnam in November 2000. Academically significant was Clinton's choice of the University of Hanoi as the venue for his major address and his mention of the increasing academic ties between the United States and Vietnam, notably the Education Abroad Program of the University of California in Hanoi.


Asian Development Bank. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors on a Proposed Loan to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam for the Vocational and Technical Education Project. Manila, November 1998.

DeFrancis, John Frances. Colonialism and Language Policy in Vietnam. The Hague: Mouton, 1977.

Elliott, David W., et al. Vietnam: Essays on History, Culture, and Society. New York: Asia Society, 1985.

Nguyen Thi My Huong, Patricis, Ed. Language in Vietnamese Society: Some Articles by Nguyen Dinh Hoa. Carbondale, IL: Asia Books, 1980.

Pham, Minh Hac. Vietnam's Education, The Current Position and Future Prospects. Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers, 1998.

Education in Vietnam: 1945-1991. Hanoi: Ministry of Education and Training of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, l994.

Sloper, David, and Can Le Thac, eds. Higher Education in Vietnam, Change and Response. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Woodside, Alexander. "The Triumphs and Failures of Mass Education in Vietnam." Pacific Affairs, 56, No.3. fall 1983.

—D. R. SarDesai

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