According the US State Department, in the early 1990's, Uzbekistan higher education produced about 20,000 new teachers annually for the primary and secondary levels and another 20,000 for higher education. In 1993 the ratio of staff to students was 1 to 12 in preschool institutions, 1 to 11.5 in primary and secondary schools, 1 to 12 in vocational schools, and 1 to 6.8 in institutions of higher education. Experts indicate the need to reduce the teacher-training program to concentrate funds. Since experts suggest that the existing staff is inadequately trained to deal with upcoming curriculum changes and the requirement to teach in Uzbek. They also noted the necessity to open a few high-quality research and training centers for intensive retraining and inservice training for teachers. The implementation of this National Program requires in-service training of more than half a million teachers and pre-service training of new teachers for the system of secondary specialized and vocational training.
Thanks to the concentration of funds efforts in the 1990s, the government has made significant improvements in teacher salaries and benefits. A monthly salary of teachers ranges from 40 to 60 American dollars. These salaries are closer to those of engineers and doctors (who are also poorly paid); however, many teachers leave the educational sector because salaries are still not competitive with those elsewhere in the economy. In higher education, professors get about 60 to 70 dollars per month, which is more competitive with those in other occupations in Uzbekistan, but certainly not with those on the international teaching market. Finally, as it was stated by many high-ranking officials, including the Ministry of Education, there is not sufficient money to raise teacher salaries to a level that will attract and keep them in the profession.
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