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Sweden

Summary

Because Sweden has instituted a statewide system of school choice between state-run and private schools, much of the world, particularly the United States, is keeping close tabs on the Swedish educational system to learn from its successes and failures. High taxes led to a shift in the 1990s from a strictly socialistic government that had existed more than 50 years to one that is highly conservative.

As a result, Sweden's relatively small number of private schools and universities may expand in number in the future. State-run schools very well may slash budgets as the push to lower national taxes continues. Swedish education officials now have put responsibility for upholding standards into the hands of local municipalities. Whether this will result in uneven levels of educational quality from municipality to municipality or even higher accomplishments from all students is a matter of debate. Nonetheless, Swedish officials have been most concerned because the academic test scores of primary and secondary students have slipped when compared to the scores of youth in other developed nations.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Beach, Hugh. A Year in Lapland. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.

Boucher, Leon. Tradition and Change in Swedish Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1982.

Daun, Ake. Swedish Mentality. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania University Press, 1996.

"Environment and School Initiatives." Organization for Economic Co-operation & Development's Center for Educational Research & Innovation. May 13, 2001. Available from http://www.ensi.org/default.htm

"Guide to Swedish Higher Education." Sweden National Agency for Higher Education. April 30, 2000. Available from http://www.hsv.se/.

"Higher Education" Embassy of Sweden, USA. May 17, 2001. Available from http://www.swedenemb.org/.

Kucha, Ryszard and Ulla Johansson. Polish and Swedish Schools in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Lublin, Poland: Maria Curie Sklodowska University Press, 1995.

"Lapp People in Sweden." The Swedish Institute. February, 1999. Available from http://www.si.se/

Marklund, Sixten and Gunnar Bergendal. Trends in Swedish Educational Policy. Stockholm: The Swedish Institute, 1979.

"Nordic Business Report," M2 Communications Ltd. Nov. 23, 1999. Available from http://cwr.utoronto.ca/.

Orring, Jonas. School in Sweden: A Survey of Primary, Middle and Secondary Education. Stockholm: Department of National Board of Education, 1967.

Paulston, Rolland G. Educational Change in Sweden: Planning and Accepting the Comprehensive School Reforms. New York: Teachers College Press, 1968.

Pedersen, Mogens N. Recent Reforms in Swedish Higher Education. Stockholm: Kreativ Information, 1980.

"Research in Education." Swedish Ministry of Education. Feb. 1, 2001. Available from http://utbildning.regeringen.se/.

Scott, Franklin D. Sweden: The Nation's History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977.

Svensson, Lennart G. Higher Education and the State in Swedish History. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1987.

Vanourek, Greg. "Sweden's Voucher Experiment." Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Jan./Feb. 1996. Available from http://www.edexcellence.net/issuespl/subject/internat/swedvouc.html.


—Hank Nuwer

Additional topics

Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.comGlobal Education ReferenceSweden - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education