Administration, Finance, & Educational Research
At the federal level, two major groups prepare and propose national policy for primary and secondary education: The Joint Consultative Committee on Education (JCC) and the National Council on Education (NCE). Drawn from federal and state ministries, university faculty, WAEC, the National Union of Teachers (NUT), and other groups, the JCC considers educational proposals and recommends policy to the NCE. The NCE, with the federal Minister of Education as the head, consists of state education commissioners and recommends policy to the federal executive council.
The organizations that consider policies for higher education are the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE). The latter considers policies for both bachelor level and lower certificate programs in the vocational and technical fields.
Money for education comes mainly from the federal government's Education Tax Fund (ETF). In 2001, the government allocated 35 percent of the budget, or 24.8 billion Nigerian dollars (about US$248 million) to education. This money was distributed to the states, and they determined how to divide it among the local governments. As a result, decision-making and policy implementation began at the federal level. The idea, however, is for the federal and state education agencies to cooperate in planning and allocating funds.
Some states, such as Rivers State in southern Nigeria, have built schools to serve as "centers of excellence" as part of a nationwide attempt to improve the educational system. Sometimes, state governments use the money to improve the lives of their students. For example, Lagos provides free lunch for all its primary students. Enugu State in eastern Nigeria offers students free train service. Many of the states pay for students' major national examinations.
In the universities, research is common. Some universities have received international recognition for their scholar and research programs. Funding is a problem, therefore, the most successful research programs are those with international funding.
In Nigeria's federal system, most educational decisions are made at the local and state level. A good example is Lagos in southwestern Nigeria, with the largest concentration of students being in the country. Lagos has a Ministry of Education made up of several departments, including Basic Education Services, Curriculum and Education Technology, Private Education and Special Programmes, Science and Technology, Finance and Administration, Inspectorate, and Curriculum Services. Lagos also has a Legal and Policy Unit, Examination Board, Scholarship Board, and a Library Board.
The state Ministry of Education actually depends on local Education Districts (ED) to carry out policies in the schools. A state Primary Schools Management Board (PSMB) performs much of the overall administering of primary education. The PSMB recruits teachers and staff; oversees promotion; disburses money from the federal, state, and local governments; and advises on school construction. The Lagos Post-Primary Teaching Service Commission (TESCOM) addresses similar issues at the secondary level. The state also has an Examination Board with the duty of conducting and supervising examinations sponsored by the state, including the NCEE, JSSCE, SSCE, and Civil Service Examinations.
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