Morocco - Administration, Finance, & Educational Research
Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.comGlobal Education ReferenceMorocco - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Education System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education
FINANCE ADMINISTRATION & EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
The National Report on Human Development states that the educational budgetary resources allocation has increased considerably. From 1981 through 1997, the budget grew by an average annualized affectation rate of 15 percent, whereas the government budget increased, for the same period, by an average of 11 percent.
From 1980 to 2000, the university system's operational costs averaged an 11 percent increase per annum. In 1980 the government spent 70 million dirhams (DH 10 is approximately US$1) or $7 million in new university investments and 680 million dirhams ($68 million) in operational costs. In 2000 the collegiate spending budget grew to 600 million dirhams ($60 million) in investments and over 2,000 million dirhams ($200 million) in operational costs. The average annualized cost per student, however, declined from 17,000 dirhams ($1,700) in 1983 to 12,000 dirhams ($1,200) in 2000.
There are 23 higher learning/formation facilities that cover all modern fields of study, research, and application. Some institutions award degrees for completion of two years programs. Others award degrees for doctorates. Students may receive a scholarship, a stipend, and/or financial aid. Once they graduate, they may be required to work for the Civil Service (le Service Civil), for at least two years, at a relatively lower salary to serve their country and pay back Moroccan taxpayers' sponsorship.
Morocco supports studies and research overseas. Students may receive a stipend, a scholarship, and/or a fellowship. For example, students wishing to attend an American graduate schools (troisième cycle) to pursue either a Masters or doctoral degree may apply to the Department of Higher Education and Scientific Research (Ministère de l'Ensignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique) for a scholarship (une bourse). Since 1980 more than 200 such scholarships have been allocated to Moroccan student candidates, primarily for Masters degrees in Business Administration, engineering, telecommunications, information technology, finance, agriculture, resource planning, and law. The average scholarship is $70,000 for 2 years, but students applying for a Masters in Business Administration program may receive $80,000. Students in a doctoral program may receive up to a $140,000 for a maximum period of 4 years. Tuition, board and room, books, and a round trip ticket are covered by these graduate scholarships.
To qualify for a graduate scholarship to study abroad, students must be Moroccan citizens; hold a Bachelors or an equivalent degree; receive 213 on the computerized or 550 on pencil and paper Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL); and pass the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE). Instead of the GRE, students applying for a Masters in Business Administration program must score higher than 500 on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and have proof of at least 12 months of an a-priori professional experience. Additional requirements include three letters of recommendation, a medical clear health certificate, and an imperative to return to Morocco for at least two years after graduation. Moroccan students who hold dual citizenship with the United States and Morocco are not eligible to apply for scholarships. Scholarships are awarded based upon the compatibility of the graduate field to Morocco's developmental needs. Female applicants are given priority. At the end of the 1990s, approximately 40,000 Moroccan students were enrolled in higher education institutions abroad.
There are 14 scientific, technical, and military establishments that provide specialized economic and business, juridical, political and public management, social, behavioral studies and training, and research and development programs. These institutions award degrees equivalent to an Associate Degree (premier cycle or Diplôme d'Etudes Universitaires Fondamentales, DEUF) as well as to the Bachelors, Masters, and doctoral degrees. Approximately one-third of the 2,750 faculty members are female professors.
Since the 1980s approximately 30 private, higher learning schools and institutes have been established in Morocco. Among these are the Higher School of Applied Informatics to Management (ESIAC); the Polyvalent School of Informatics and Electronics (EPSIEL); the International School of Management at Casablanca, Rabat, Fez, and Marrakech (ESIG); the Higher Institute of Economics and Social Sciences (IHEES); the Higher Institute of Biology and Biochemistry at Casablanca and Marrakech (ISBB); the Preparatory Higher Institute in Food Technologies (ISFORT); and, the Technical Higher Institute of Fishing.
Since 1995 approximately 10,000 Moroccans graduated with a scientific/technical degree. About 40 percent of these were females. In 1997-1998, a total of 2,867 male and 1,084 female students graduated in economics, law, public management, and behavioral sciences. In 1997-1998, approximately 321 graduates were foreign students from Africa, the Middle East, France, and the United States.
At the university level English is often offered as a one or two hour weekly subject, notably in those research-based subjects like physics and chemistry, medicine, economics, political science, or philosophy. College students may even select a four-year degree program, the English Section, and graduate with a Bachelors of Arts in English. The University of Mohammed V's College of Literature and Humanities is the main center of this English specialization and offers areas of specialization such as composition, reading, English as a second language, technical and business English, British literature, and American literature.
Additional English teaching/learning facilities include the American Cultural Association, composed of American language centers in main Morocco; the American School of Tangiers, pre-K through K12; Casablanca American School, K1 through K12; High Technology School of Rabat; Rabat American School, pre-K through K12; English Teachers in Morocco, a non-commercial and an unaffiliated digital association that supports TEFL and all English teachers in Morocco; the Al-Akhawayn University in Ifran, modeled after the United States, that collaborates with the University of Southern California in areas such as comparative studies, architecture, history, and social sciences; and The British Council of Morocco, which aims at spreading a wider knowledge and understanding of the United Kingdom in Morocco, British English, and other educational opportunities for Moroccans.
Even with a degree, it is difficult for some graduates to find work. In the late 1990s, 45 percent of college graduates between the ages of 25 and 34 were unemployed. In October 1999 the Special Commission on Education and Human Capital Formation in Morocco conducted a macro-education national project, Education and Formation National Chart Project (Projet de Charte Nationale d'Education et de Formation). The project examined seven areas and made recommendations for each.
The section on Moroccan educational methodologies, rights, and obligations acknowledged that Moroccan culture and social ethics are based primarily on Islamic theology and faith; therefore, Moroccans should be taught and trained in virtuous individual excellence, responsible citizenship, rectitude, moderation, practical wisdom, tolerance, reciprocity, scientific spirit and inquiry, economic individual initiative and entrepreneurship, global friendship, courage, magnificence, generosity, and justice. They should also be taught to respect and appreciate other world religions and cultures. Students should learn to uphold their natural rights of worshiping God (Allah Almighty), to pursue rational liberty and happiness, and to oblige by their civic and political duties national identity and constitutional monarchy. Use of Standard Arabic should be encouraged, both in writing and speaking, schools, cultural and religious settings, the work place, and the street. Learning foreign languages is encouraged. Positive religious, psychological, emotional, and aesthetic values and principles should be acquired from an early age through preschool programs and home education and incorporated into all levels of education and workplace environments. Education is the center of Morocco's social and economic expansion, progress, economic growth, and development. Moroccan pedagogy and educational-teaching-learning methodologies should be based on educational research and focus on active learning. College and university education should prepare and develop a productive human capital that stimulates national development and competes regionally and globally.
The second main section of the report examined Moroccan educational methodologies, rights, and obligations. All Moroccans are entitled to national schooling and training. Children, women, and the physically and mentally challenged must be encouraged to enroll in Moroccan educational institutions and training centers. More effort should be given to achieving urban-rural educational balance and harmony. Compulsory education, up to a working age, should be implemented gradually and forcefully. All citizens should be actively involved in and support the educational domestic mission. Parental movements and philanthropic organization should be encouraged to become more involved in education via governmental broadcasting and fiscal advantages and credits. Education must include all media: print, radio, television, and cyberspace. Continued education and voluntary teaching must fight illiteracy and learning stagnation. Multilateral dialectics, participatory education, collaborative learning, and fair testing are some of the cornerstones of an improved national educational system. Testing and examination should be polarized around learning performance, outcome objectives, seriousness, honesty, work ethics, discipline and time consciousness, and competitive learning acquisition.
The third area of the report focused on educational innovations and renovations. Educational programs from 2000 to 2019 should focus on the preschool, elementary (K1-K5), and junior secondary (K6-K9) levels. Education should reflect both Moroccan territorial integrity and Moroccan pluralistic educational philosophy. Education should receive the maximum budgetary and financial support. Moroccan education should reflect the needs and requirements of national economic and social development.
The fourth area examined education generalization, democratization, socio-economic development, and modernity. The report projects that by 2004, preschools will be available for three to six years olds; by 2005 a total of 90 percent of elementary students will hold elementary education certificates; by 2008 some 80 percent of the pupils will receive their K9 diploma (Brevet d'Etudes Secondaires); by 2011 a total of 60 percent of the students will be preparing for a technical or vocational career; by 2002 there will be 10,000 graduates of vocational training programs; by 2006 there will be 50,000 graduates of vocational training programs; and by 2011 a total of 40 percent of the students will receive their high school diploma (le baccalauréat). The report emphasized that laboratory work; modern technology, notably electronics and cyberspace; and school-to-work programs are needed to achieve these projections.
Another area of the report examined alphabetization, literacy, and various channels of learning. The report predicts that by 2011 less than 20 percent of Morocco's population will be illiterate. Special emphasis should be given to rural areas, girls, and seniors. The media, professional organizations, chambers of commerce, volunteers, and religious institutions should work to eliminate illiteracy. Literate training should be a component of Moroccan craftsmanship and artistry. Internships and externships areencouraged. Families and households should be involved in volunteer and tutorial programs.
The technical and higher learning training and education portion of the report endorsed vocational and school-to-work projects, especially in technical high schools (Baccalauréat d'Enseignment Technique et Professionnel). High school graduates may enroll in a two-year associate degree program (Diplôme d'Etudes Universitaires Fondamentales or DEUF) or a four-year bachelors program. Hassanya University of Islamic (Chri'a Dar Hadith Hassanya) or other similar theological institutes should provide theology programs. Information technology and distance learning should be developed. A variety of educational tools should be used: books, videos, Internet, television, and video-conferencing. Primary and secondary education programs should include 1,000 hours or 24 weeks of preuniversity schooling and should begin the second Wednesday of September; universities should open on September 15. Languages of instruction should include Scientific Arabic, French, English, Spanish, and Tamazight (Berber). Scholarships, fellowships, awards, and prizes should be available. Pedagogical centers should graduate the number of quality teachers needed in the sciences, economics, mathematics, and law. Research and development should continue at the Hassan II Academy of Sciences and Technology. Physical education and sports pedagogy should be equally available at universities, Pedagogical Regional Centers, and Higher Normal Schools. Colleges, universities, specialized schools, and institutes should continually train educational staff, administration, and management. Teachers for special education, child development, and the physically and mentally challenged students should receive special training.
The general and college education administration and governance section noted that special, autonomous government agencies (Services d'Etat Gérés de Manière Autonome or SEGMAs) are available to train and prepare education economists, administrators, managers, accountants, examiners, and monitors. University councils comprised of student representatives, professors, directors, deans, and business and community leaders should select college presidents for renewable four-year periods. All levels of public and private schools should implement the national educational plan. Tax credits, exemptions, and other monetary, banking, investment, fiscal, and regional cooperation provisions should be available.