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Music Education - OVERVIEW, PREPARATION OF TEACHERS

arts school national programs

OVERVIEW
Richard Colwell

PREPARATION OF TEACHERS
Carlos Xavier Rodriguez

OVERVIEW

An observation of music classes in the public schools reveals that little changed in the last half of the twentieth century, including the education of music teachers. The value and role of music education in American schools has been affected, however, by the education reform movement and changes in the organization and delivery of instruction. One major change is that music often is not regarded as a standalone subject but is incorporated into an arts education.

Almost all K–6 schools offer some type of required instruction in music. At the middle school level, changes in the instructional format and the addition of electives in other arts courses have reduced the importance of music. The secondary school music program consists largely of performance ensembles, which comprise bands (wind ensembles), choirs, and string or full orchestras. These ensembles are elective although an increasing number of states (about half in 2001) mandate a unit of fine arts at the secondary level. To enable the nonperformer to meet this graduation requirement, courses are offered that may include advanced placement (AP) music theory (usually taken by students who are already enrolled in a music class), beginning guitar and keyboard classes, or an extension of the general music class similar to that offered in the elementary school. The prevalence of the new requirement for an arts course at the secondary level is somewhat misleading as some states define grades seven through twelve as secondary education. There is also a broad interpretation of what constitutes an arts course; some states include literature, foreign language, and photography, as well as music, visual arts, theatre, and dance, while others include the arts as a choice among required electives. The most identifiable change in the music curriculum, found primarily in general music, is a greater emphasis on composition, the instruction of which has been facilitated by computers and the use of multicultural music.

It is difficult to generalize the percentage of students participating in music at the secondary level. Percentage of participation varies greatly depending upon the size of the school, ranging from 5 percent in large schools to as much as half the student body in small or magnet schools. About 35 percent of the student body are enrolled in music for one semester, a percentage that would be about 20 percent at any one time. Well over 90 percent of the secondary schools offer band and nearly 85 percent offer choral music. String programs are found in approximately 20 percent of high schools, although this dearth is compensated by the all-city/region youth orchestras that provide stunning musical experiences, often rivaling the quality of the local symphony orchestra. String students commonly study music privately outside of school and often began instruction at an early age through a Suzuki-type program.

An important variable in secondary music is the establishment of numerous magnet arts high schools. Students enrolled in these programs do very well academically, as shown through past experience with arts magnet schools like the Interlochen Arts Academy and the North Carolina School for the Arts. James Catterall's research on students enrolled in music for four years reveals that they score appreciably better than average on SAT and ACT tests. This relationship between academic success and the arts is frequently used to promote the concept of "learning through the arts." In 2001 the U.S. Department of Education provided a $2.5 million grant to the Berkeley County School District in South Carolina to initiate an integrated arts/academic magnet school curriculum.

Elementary School Music

The required general music program in grades K–6 is less vibrant than it was at the midpoint of the twentieth century. The reduction in curriculum time occurred gradually during the 1970s and 1980s, making it difficult to pinpoint any single cause. Budget reductions are most often cited as the cause, perhaps due to the publicity given to budget caps passed by the legislatures in California and Massachusetts. Whether the caps were causal is a matter of debate but the reduction in curriculum time for music was more likely the result of changes in priorities and not fiscal change. During the 1970s and 1980s fewer discretionary funds were available to school districts due to steep increases in shared costs for special education. Second, greater emphasis was placed on test scores in language arts and mathematics. In addition, elementary classroom teachers were relieved of responsibility for teaching or helping to teach music, due to an extensive campaign by the Music Educators National Conference in behalf of certified music teachers. Fourth, colleges of education reduced the coursework in music required of classroom teachers, making music the area in which these teachers felt least competent to model and to teach. Also during this period instructional time was reduced from daily classes of 20–30 minutes to a weekly offering of the same length. However, expectations of student competency in music were not lowered and in fact new objectives were added. No public reaction to this change occurred, as school administrators and the public never had a clear idea of the important competencies in music that all students should possess upon completion of a K–6 curriculum. Thus, inadequate time became the norm. Instructional time in the secondary schools was not reduced; thus there was no change in the more visible components of the secondary school's music program.

Music appreciation as an objective in the elementary curriculum lost any cachet it once had (the AP course in music listening was dropped at the secondary level for lack of interest) despite a warning by the National School Board Association in 1988 that performance had replaced appreciation. Singing as an objective became a lower priority. Texts for general music for K–6, consisting of songs with related listening materials for all students, were replaced by specialized programs based on the method and materials of the founder. These programs, primarily Orff, Kodaly, and Dalcroze, became ascendant, along with teacher-constructed offerings consisting of popular and ethnic music, music games, videos, and activities tangentially related to music. When the specialist teacher came in contact with students only once per week and met as many as 500 students during that week, the idea of a sequential curriculum became infeasible, as did the possibility of assisting the student who fell behind. In all states except Louisiana specialists are the primary deliverers of instruction.

The reform movement promotion of basic or core subjects mobilized those interested in elementary music education to demand that music be included as a core subject, returning it to its century-long importance. Music was joined by visual arts, theatre, and dance to create a requirement in arts education. Arts Content Standards were quickly formulated in each of the four arts and in 1994 these standards were the first core addition to be accepted (after the long-standing mathematics standards) by the Secretary of Education. Performance and Opportunity to Learn Standards were also constructed and distributed to members of the four arts professions but these two standards have received scant attention, especially the Opportunity to Learn Standards that are necessary for students to attain at least a proficient performance level in nine content areas. The Music Educators National Conference (now named MENC: The National Association for Music Education) has vigorously promoted the content standards since their adoption. (The suggestion has been made that if the standards in all of the subjects were adopted that it would add five years to the K–12 curriculum). Two of the content standards in each art form emphasized the importance of relating the four art forms to one another and relating the arts to other subjects in the curriculum. Although it is difficult to imagine how social studies or most other subjects could be taught without consideration of the arts, this content standard shifted the perception of responsibility so that the arts teacher is seen as an aide to the subject matter teacher when the reverse should be true, logically and educationally. The arts standards will not be taken seriously where the classroom teacher is given the responsibility but not the competency to teach in the arts area.

Middle School

With the recommendations of the Carnegie Foundation for the middle school, new curriculum emphasis was placed on student development of a positive outlook toward educational success that would contribute to improved self-confidence and self-esteem. To accomplish this, the middle school curriculum was to be taught by teacher teams in the more basic subjects that, in turn, were to be supplemented by a rich offering of exploratory courses. The arts became part of these elective exploratory courses, frequently competing with chess club and Tae Kwon-Do for available curricular time. (The arts are often a required exploratory for six to nine weeks at one or more of the grade levels of middle school, an arrangement that interferes with any sequential music curriculum during middle school and lacks any connection to elementary school music objectives or to the offerings in the secondary school.)

The involvement of the arts community in supporting the inclusion of the arts as a basic school subject has raised many substantive issues. First, could a national or community artist supplement or replace the certified teacher at a lower cost and provide more authentic instruction? The massive Annenberg grant to the public schools established partnerships between the schools and cultural organizations, a provision that brought performers and composers who had no teacher training into the schools much like the Ford Foundation's Young Composers Project did in the late 1950s and 1960s and programs of the National Endowment of the Arts, state arts councils, and Young Audiences do in the early twenty-first century. Second, arts organizations raise or find money to support their own curricular vision of a music program or music experience. These organizations provide musical instruments, music scores, and instruction, as well as field experiences such as attendance at concerts and operas. Third, arts organizations have found it easier to work with classroom teachers and their objectives rather than with the heavily scheduled music teacher. The Lincoln Center Institute has operated such a program for twenty-five years, bringing classroom teachers and professional musicians together to facilitate the classroom teacher's objective of an enriched classroom and to aid teachers in attaining goals in their extant curriculums. Fourth, other arts and nonarts organizations have taken a broad approach to education (as opposed to schooling) and initiated after-school programs in music to accomplish several purposes: to provide a balance to remedial programs in the more basic subjects that are offered after school; to provide a safe environment for that time period between the end of the school day and when parents are at home; and to free up the basic curriculum by avoiding the interruption for music class. Fifth, community music centers have a presence in many cities, offering not only private lessons but often ensemble experiences and short-term educational instructional units in the public schools (with their own staff); these offerings consist of content that fits a particular school's monthly or yearly focus. Sixth, all major and community orchestras have initiated educational programs that include youth concerts and preparation for attendance at these concerts. These multiple offers of assistance from the local community are difficult to reject; they cost the schools nothing, are designed for all students in K–6, and administratively count as part, or all, of the music program.

To describe the music education of Americans one must take into account the value of private music lessons (especially piano and guitar); the impact of radio, television, and compact discs and the listening experiences they provide; and the many informal performing experiences such as garage bands. Should a student's competency in music be the issue, many students could test out of classroom music. However, the opportunity to learn to play an instrument is provided in most schools around fourth grade–the decision of when to offer instrumental music instruction is based more upon the budget than the student's likelihood of success. Also, music educators in K–6 general music have adopted a role in supporting multicultural education. It is interesting to identify music from other cultures and to compare and contrast these types of music. Learning to perform on ethnic instruments is fun and listening exercises are more concrete as much ethnic music has a practical value in its relationship to social studies and other core courses. Western music, written for the concert hall, often does not contain many cultural or historical references; its meaning and importance are based on its formal and aesthetic qualities. Thus, it is no longer possible to definitively describe the K–6 music program in American schools, as the content is not only diverse but also affected greatly by the political currents of the educational reform movement.

Early Childhood Music

Early childhood education frequently includes rich music experiences whether in the private early childhood programs such as Waldorf and Montessori (which extend beyond early childhood) or in public school programs for disadvantaged children. Research, including the Perry Early Childhood Program (High Scope) that has impressive longitudinal data on a sample of students for some twenty years, indicates that music competencies achieved from birth to age five assist students in later school experience. Other research, whose findings are often mislabeled the "Mozart effect," indicates that music listening experiences with very young children play a role in how the brain is wired. This research is focused on temporal-spatial ability and how it relates to the abstract thinking required in mathematics and science. Keyboard experience also may provide a spatial-temporal advantage. These research results also support programs labeled "learning through music" where music is taught not for its musical benefits but for other reasons. The interest in justifying music instruction on the basis of what is learned about other subjects is a contemporary worry, although the powerful instrumental music programs in the secondary schools have long been valued for their role in accomplishing general, nonarts objectives. Students do learn character, responsibility, cooperative learning, how to budget their time, and much more as part of being a contributing member to an ensemble that has high standards. Students participate because their peers participate and they are attracted by the chance to do things well with their friends. The power of these side objectives does not necessitate the sacrifice of unique musical objectives; however, the perception of school administrators and board members is important for long-term goals.

Music continues to play an important role in special education programs, in music therapy, and with English as a Second Language students. The nonverbal nature of music allows students with special needs to participate in many music experiences and to obtain educational benefits as well as enjoyment.

Secondary Schools

The instrumental performance program (grades 9–12) is edging toward becoming a semi-independent part of the school day in that it is not fully supported by school funds. Participating students do receive academic credit but that credit is not always computed in a student's overall grade average and many colleges exclude such grades and credit in making admission decisions. The Instrumentalist magazine reported in 2001 that more than half of the budget required to support secondary instrumental music programs was raised by students, businesses, and parents through fund-raising or assessments. This percentage likely represents the more advanced band programs. The quality of band programs is steadily increasing with graduates often able to matriculate into college applied music curricula. A study completed by Educational Research Service indicates that slightly more than 20 percent of the funds required to support secondary music programs, including general music, music theory, choral performance, and other academic classes, is raised from outside sources. No longer automatically providing instruments for students, schools have gradually come to expect students to own or rent their own instruments and to pay for expenses associated with contests, festivals, and travel. There are also expenses involved with choral music but these are more limited, restricted to appropriate concert dress and travel funds. Secondary music is, therefore, not affordable for everyone unless support exists for special students.

In other aspects, music education in the secondary schools has not changed significantly. Secondary music teachers have not been affected by the educational reform movement (except for block scheduling and the addition of more required courses) and are generally unconcerned about the voluntary national standards as some do not relate to ensembles and others are too rudimentary to cause much trouble.

Philosophy

A single philosophy of music education for K–12 is inappropriate except when speaking of music in the broadest of terms. The need for more than one philosophy is not surprising with a subject as broad and diverse as music, one that provides so many beneficial outcomes. Two distinct philosophies exist in K–12 education, one based on the importance of music education for all students and one based upon the benefits of performance, including aesthetics and opportunities for excellence, for those with interest and talent. Teachers usually adhere to one philosophy or the other based on whether they have interests in elective music or in providing music to all students, regardless of ability. There are somewhat more than 45,000 public secondary school music teachers involved with performance; this represents slightly less than half the music teaching force. MENC reports an estimated 105,000 public school music teachers with an additional 15,000 teaching in private schools (2000a). The complexity of music (Western music has been increasing in complexity for centuries) means that not everyone can adequately perform the music that is important to them. Those who have the ability and time to develop high level performance skills can derive enormous satisfaction, enjoyment, and understanding from performing alone and with others.

External financial support is also important in supporting national arts (music) programs. The Getty Center has taken a special interest in visual arts education, supporting activities and publications to promote Discipline-Based Arts Education, a movement that has had some influence in music as well. Without Getty support, adoption of the voluntary national standards would have been delayed or lost, as would have been the arts assessment in 1997 of the National Association of Educational Progress and the development of the arts teacher component of the National Board of Professional Teaching Students.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BICKELL, HENRY M., and PAUL, REGINA H. 1988. Time for Curriculum. Alexandria, VA: National School Boards Association.

BROWN, J. D. 1994. "Opportunities and Solutions for U.S. Instrumental Music Programs." The Gemeinhardt Report 4:11.

CARNEGIE COUNCIL ON ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT. 1989. Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century. New York: Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development.

CARNEGIE COUNCIL ON ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT. 1995. Great Transitions: Preparing Adolescents for a New Century. New York: Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development.

CATTERALL, JAMES; CHAPLEAU, RICHARD; and IWANGA, JOHN. 1999. "Involvement in the Arts and Human Development." In Champions of Change, ed. Ed Fiske. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership.

EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE. 2000. The National Survey of Music Education in Public Secondary Schools. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Service.

EISNER, ELLIOT. 2001. "Music Education Six Months After the Turn of the Century." Arts Education Policy Review 102 (3):20–24.

INSTRUMENTALIST. 2001. "2001 Survey of School Music Budgets." Instrumentalist (August):34–38.

LEONHARD, CHARLES. 1991. The Status of Arts Education in American Public Schools. Urbana, IL: Council for Research in Music Education.

MUSIC EDUCATORS NATIONAL CONFERENCE. 1994a. National Standards for Arts Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.

MUSIC EDUCATORS NATIONAL CONFERENCE. 1994b. Opportunity to Learn Standards, PreK–12. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.

MUSIC EDUCATORS NATIONAL CONFERENCE. 1996. Performance Standards for Music. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.

MUSIC EDUCATORS NATIONAL CONFERENCE. 2000a. "FYI: How Many Teachers Are There?" Teaching Music (October):69.

MUSIC EDUCATORS NATIONAL CONFERENCE. 2000b. "FYI: How Many Teachers Are There?" Teaching Music (December):66–67.

STRONG, RICHARD W.; SILVER, HARVEY F.; and PERINI, MATTHEW J. 2001. Teaching What Matters Most: Standards and Strategies for Raising Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS. 1999. Digest of Educational Statistics 1998. Washington, DC:U.S. Department of Education.

RICHARD COLWELL

Prior to the 1960s the preparation of music teachers in the United States included study in music history, theory, and literature, performance experience in vocal and/or instrumental music, and initial teaching experience in a music classroom. The social and educational upheavals of the 1960s brought about significant changes in this curriculum to include new emphases on contemporary music, world music, contributions of related fields such as psychology and philosophy, and competency-based teacher preparation programs. By the 1970s, the aesthetic education movement, first introduced in widely read texts by Charles Leonhard and Robert W. House, dominated music education. Perhaps the most influential writing on this topic was Bennett Reimer's 1971 explication of the relationship between aesthetic principles and music education. His subsequent monograph (1972, revised in 1989) broadly influenced music teachers to legitimatize music instruction that was based on more deeply felt beliefs regarding the nature and importance of musical experience. During the 1990s music teacher education was influenced by the publication of national standards for music instruction formulated by the Music Educators National Conference (1994), which also sparked renewed interest in competency-based programs.

Dominant Themes in Music Teacher Education

During the last two decades of the twentieth century, much of the research concerning undergraduate music education programs focused on the student, the instructor, and the program content. Studies emphasizing student roles included the essential characteristics of the effective teacher; teaching styles; musical, intellectual, and personal development; teaching time management skills; formation of classroom and rehearsal strategies; behavior management skills; leadership skills; and attrition variables. Studies involving faculty included supervisory roles, use of modeling techniques, motivational skills, and professional responsibilities. Studies involving program content included the following:

  • descriptive research by regions or type (instrumental/choral)
  • use of innovations
  • course sequencing
  • feedback systems
  • use of computers and technology
  • use of simulation techniques
  • evaluation
  • observation
  • the content and structure of methods courses
  • multicultural components
  • interdisciplinary studies
  • field-based experiences and student teaching
  • the importance of developing a philosophy of music education

Additional studies included historical accounts of music education programs, suggestions for improving evaluation systems, and reports of various educational task forces, which recommend guidelines for curriculum reform.

Problems in Music Teacher Education

Two competing perspectives have dominated writings and discussions in music teacher education. On the one hand, there is a search for new ways to teach more effectively what has long been regarded as standard curriculum content. On the other hand, there have been attempts to study the role of higher institutions in preparing educators, the systems through which a program's effectiveness is measured, and new emphases in educational psychology that require amendments to program philosophy and procedures. Some writers have expressed continuing concern for the conflict between the conservatory, liberal arts, and educational/professional imperatives present in the modern music education undergraduate program. Adequate coverage of these diverse components is typically not manageable within the context of a four-year program, so many institutions have added a fifth year of study.

Advocates of improved evaluation procedures in undergraduate music education programs cite the need for evaluation of learning as well as teaching. It has also been recommended that evaluation be presented as a distinct subject within the curriculum as well as used by faculty members to assess student learning. The term assessment as instruction is used to describe evaluative measures that are built into the learning process, and pre-service teachers in music performance and general music are encountering more course activities that include such measures.

The role of student teaching in the curriculum continues to be problematic. College faculty are hard-pressed to intensify their roles as supervisors and provide more time within the curriculum for field experiences. Provisions, however, have been identified by in-service teachers as the most important critical to an effective and relevant pre-service education.

Perhaps the most critical problem facing music teacher educators is the need for an increased effort to bridge the gap between educational theory and instructional practice. Few, if any, critics attribute this problem to insufficient study of either. Rather, it is traced to the segregation of these subjects in course-work and a lack of modeling by music education faculty in their own teaching. The success of such an effort requires increased focus and ingenuity on the part of faculty and increased emphasis on the development of problem-solving and independent thinking skills.

Future Issues

The results of research in musical preference need greater prominence in the undergraduate teaching program. There continues to be a cultural dividing line between "school music" and the world of music beyond the classroom, namely, popular music. The Housewright Declaration, a statement on the future of music education drafted by a subcommittee of the Music Educators National Conference (2000), espouses the increased presence of popular music in American music classrooms, and warns that music teacher training must proceed accordingly by becoming more flexible in its purview of teaching competencies. The implication for pre-service music educators is that they should begin preparing now by learning to teach composition and improvisation, broadening their music vocabularies to encompass pop genres and all types of progressive music, exploring alternative notational systems, designing interdisciplinary projects, and otherwise developing their creative reasoning skills.

There appears to be increasing emphasis on the development of interpersonal skills. As mentioned above, the personal characteristics of effective teachers are well known, but those most highly valued are the ability to detect and accommodate individual learning styles in the classroom, to demonstrate superior communication skills, and to balance efficiently the use of criticism and praise. Although it has not been established how undergraduate programs might best meet this challenge, college faculty will need to utilize measures that increase the individualization of degree programs through assessment of students' interpersonal strengths and weaknesses.

Technological advancements have given rise to more affordable, portable, powerful, and userfriendly systems whose educational worth is difficult to ignore. A required course in computer proficiency for music teaching is common across the nation. Many areas of music learning have been revolutionized by the computer–most profoundly, music composition. Although it is common for instructional curricula to be designed in accordance with available software, the inverse is decidedly optimal for teachers and teaching. Computers should serve to enhance a broad understanding of music and the related arts. The issue of humanism versus technology must be mediated by music education faculty, who can demonstrate proper computer applications to the teaching and learning of music.

A view of musicianship as a world phenomenon has been recommended since the Tanglewood Symposium of 1967. Its importance in a program appears to be largely a matter of faculty expertise and/or interest, as there are no federal, state, or task force mandates for a multicultural component. It should be noted here that the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) has requirements in this area (and others) to qualify for accreditation, but such accreditation is voluntary. Multicultural music advocates cite the abundance of accessible information, the need for exposure to the many sources of influence in popular music, and the increasingly pluralistic profile of the average American classroom as reasons for a global perspective on music-making. Critics are primarily concerned with the more practical issues of additional time allotments in an already overflowing course load, the selection of certain musics over others for study, the extent of such studies, and issues of authenticity.

Many of the reforms prescribed for undergraduate music education programs continue to involve a rethinking of balances between the musical, professional and academic components. These translate into decisions regarding classwork versus field experience, musicianship versus teacher training, and whether to emphasize educational theory over instructional practice. A common theme that appears to underlie virtually all teacher education programs is the need for pre-service teachers to develop the cognitive skills necessary to analyze and evaluate effective teaching.

Finally, contemporary conceptions of intelligence have significantly extended the forms of understanding believed to be necessary for teaching. David Elliott posits four types of knowledge–formal, informal, impressionistic, and supervisory–each distinct in its origin and usage in the teaching process. Postmodern philosophy and thinking, regarded by academic professionals as a confounding yet indispensable guiding principle, reminds those entering the teaching profession they must address the difficult questions of what constitutes quality, integrity, and relevancy in instruction as they enter a new millennium of music teacher education.

See also: ART EDUCATION.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ELLIOTT, DAVID. 1995. Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education. New York: Oxford University Press.

LABUTA, JOSEPH A., and SMITH, DEBORAH A. 1997. Music Education: Historical Contexts and Perspectives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

LEONHARD, CHARLES, and HOUSE, ROBERT W. 1972. Foundations and Principles of Music Education (1959). New York: McGraw-Hill.

MADSEN, CLIFFORD K., ed. 2000. Vision 2020: The Housewright Symposium on the Future of Music Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.

MARK, MICHAEL L. 1996. Contemporary Music Education, 3rd edition. New York: Schirmer.

REIMER, BENNETT. 1971. "Aesthetic Behaviors in Music." In Toward an Aesthetic Education, ed. Bennett Reimer. Washington, DC: Music Educators National Conference.

REIMER, BENNETT. 1989. A Philosophy of Music Education, 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

CARLOS XAVIER RODRIGUEZ

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Music Teaching Technology for Beginners



Ukraine

Mr.  Stepanov S.M.



http://reflectionmusic.ucoz.com/ 



 We would like to offer  the sci. methods

“Digital Music Grammar “ and “Algorithm of  Microcycles “

for your  review to edit .



       Abstract



     Throughout many centuries, the musical structure has had numerous modifications. We can observe the constant use of digits for convenience of notation of the music sounds, for example: digital organ bass, lute tablatures, guitar jazz ciphers. The digital system of teaching is absent in musical curriculum and is not applied nowadays in practice because of teacher's insufficient professional knowledge in the sphere of physiology. The following scientific article “Digital Music Grammar” raises the question of the necessity of application of the information technologies in the system of music education. The findings of our scientific investigations have permit us to understand the most delicate mechanisms of child’s mental activity and to detect new creative abilities. Directly application of the information technologies will help schoolmasters to improve the quality, speed and efficiency on teaching of children. The sci.methods “ Digital Music Grammar “ and “ Algorithm of Microcycles “ are dedicated to children on development their intellectual and creative abilities. We consider the children would benefit by further study.



http://reflectionmusic.ucoz.com/ 

teacher of music Stepanov S.M.

   

Digital Music Grammar



In pedagogical practice at the first period of musical teaching the natural abilities of children were always taken into consideration, it is the main principle on which the pedagogical process is based. The child’s psychoemotional status and neurophysiologic peculiarities of mechanisms of brain’s activity; perception of the information from sheet; analysis of the information and realization of the neuromotor function of hands on the keyboard of an instrument are not taken into consideration in due measure. It is known that the process of teaching to play a musical instrument includes the following stages of psychic activity: the reading of the melody from sheet, analysis and synthesis of received information, its correlation with the keyboard, fingering, with movement of fingers and sounding of an instrument. In this regard, the great total load appears in the child’s psychic sphere. With the purpose of transforming the music structure into clearer and easier information to be perceived by the child, new methods of musical teaching have been elaborated. It is the digital grammar based on the mode of perception of music sounds by means of digits. The digital method of teaching enables the child to be actively involved into the process of learning to play an instrument, to achieve self-realization with fewer negative emotions, and it means excluding of undesirable mental, emotional strain and, as a result of it, reducing of the possibility of appearance of negative attitude to the educational process.







Physiological Basis



The physiological substantiation of the digital system application for coding and decoding of a melody is the following : children begin their contact with digits already in preschool age, when they are taught to count and this system is learned by children quite firmly, since it is often used in their daily life. But the generally accepted music grammar is new for them and, naturally, requires some additional period of time to be acquired by children. It is for that reason that in the initial period of musical teaching, children inevitably spend a lot of time and efforts to read a melody written down in music signs. Naturally, it slows down rate of training, causes psycho-emotional discomfort, lowers the child’s interest to music. Therefore, in the initial period of teaching, besides work with the generally accepted music grammar, it will be useful to substitute it with the use of a digital system for some time. It does not mean that we want to do without standard music grammar but at the initial stages of musical education, the system of digital coding and decoding of music sounds is undoubtedly useful, as it speeds up teaching of children.



Practical Basis



With the purpose of studying the physiological influence of the digital methods upon the psycho-emotional status of the child, practical experiments have constantly been carried out. The first group of children was taught with the help of the standard music system, the second group of children was taught using the digital system. The obtained results of teaching on different methods were carefully analyzed and studied. The important practical moment has been noted : the first group of children spent a lot of time to study the necessary material and to master practical skills of playing the music instrument. Their working capacity is characterized by instability of attention, low activity of analytical thinking and fast mental fatigue. Another practical moment has been noted: the second group of children has shown high stable result as compared to the first group. Experimental research has revealed a certain dependence, in particular: children taught with the help of the digital methods easily adopted the material and the process of learning passed twice as quickly on positive psychoemotional basis with desire to master the practical skills of playing on an instrument. The experts on pedagogy and medicine have objectively arrived to the common conclusion: the fast and easy reading of the melody written down in figures allows the child to dynamically realize the potential musical opportunities and has a great practical importance in the development of intellectual and creative abilities. The quality, speed and efficiency in mastering practical skills depend on music abilities of an individual, psychoemotional status and method of teaching of a subject taking into account the neurophysiologic peculiarities of mechanisms of brain’s activity.



Parallel Description



In practical work, applying the generally accepted music grammar, the child connects the definition of the melody notes to the pitch i.e., to the system of dimension, which is written down in the form of an expanded construction, both on x – horizontal and on y – vertical. In reading the music information from sheet, the direction of eyeballs’ movements is spasmodic – it has a multi – stage combination both on y – vertical, from the G-key up to the F-key, and on x- horizontal often with return of eyesight to the initial point i.e., to the key point “g” or to the mainstay point “c”, which the child knows very well. For integration, synthesis and the modification of complex pattern of the received information the structures of the central nervous system require an additional period of time. It is a neurophysiologic process proceeding in an interval of time between the moment of perception of the music information from sheet and the moment of the hands’ response on the keyboard of an instrument. A great number of irregular nervous impulses is transferred to the central nervous system per unit of time and, as the consequence of this, fatigue of hand muscles is considerably increased(Berosov, Korovkin1990). An amplitude of muscle tension is directly dependent on the stimulation frequency, when each subsequent nervous impulse coincides with the phase of increased excitability of a muscle ( Green, Stout, Taylor 1990 ). On the level of synaptic terminal we can see untimely synthesis of neurotransmitter, deep and stable depolarization of postsynaptic membrane and, as a result, the convulsive reflexes are thus formed. An important neurophysiologic moment has been noted : during a short time interval the contracture, i.e., constantly high muscular tension is formed, that in turn, is harmfully reflected on the contents and character of a melody.

In practical work, applying the method of the digital key, the child connects the definition of a melody to the system of dimension, which is written down in the form of an integrated construction both on x – horizontal and on y – vertical. Reading the digital information from sheet the trajectory of eyeballs’ movements on y–vertical is projected to the exact determinant

( digit ,sign, symbol ), the trajectory of eyeballs’ movements on x – horizontal is projected in one direction, forwards. In the given system of dimension the integration of the digital information proceeds instantly, its realization on an instrument proceeds in reflexive time-ratio. The paradoxical phenomenon is revealed : the interval of time, between the moment of perception of the digital information from sheet and the moment of the hands’ response on the keyboard of an instrument, is contracted to a minimum. We achieve a reduction of load on hand muscles at the expense of decreasing of an amplitude between muscle tension and the resulting movement and, as a consequence of this, the time intervals between effort and accuracy of pressing of a key are considerably shortened .On the level of synaptic terminal we can see intensity of neurotransmitter allocation directly proportionally to the frequency of generated impulses by neurons, in result of it, the coordinated reflexes are thus formed. An important neurophysiological moment has been noted: reciprocal muscular innervation is formed, i. e. the rational distribution of the manual technique on the keyboard of an instrument, that in turn, is considerably reflected on the contents and character of the melody. The principal thought is in the fact that at the expense of melody perception by means of digits its realization becomes faster and easier, that in turn, is positively reflected on the psychoemotional status of the child and enables him to dynamically realize the potential music abilities in psychosomatic action as a result (Rumiantseva, Loseva, Bunina 1986 ). Physiologically correctly and rationally performed actions contribute to the solid technical progress of the majority of beginners, develop their mental capacity to perceive the music sounds analytically and will speed up process of learning and mastering professional skills



Neurophysiological Aspect



It is well – known that the difficulties in perception of any information, including musical one, cause strain of the main functional systems in the child’s organism. The developed digital technology of musical training is perspective, has practical result, but it requires physiologic and psychology researches devoted to study of influence of a recommended method to psycho-emotional status and to a condition of the main functional systems of the child’s organism: the central nervous system, the muscular system and others. With this purpose the experimental researches are to be performed, namely: ENG, EMG, EEG – tests on study of a degree of mental load that the child has received in perception of the information written down in the melody notes in comparison with the load that a child has received in perception of the music information written down in number signs.

The test of electronystagmography allows us to investigate eyeshot, positional nystagmus and also to determine quantity of fluctuations of eyeballs during perception of the melody written in the music marks and digital symbols. The test of electromyography allows us to investigate a threshold of muscular irritability (min – max) and an amplitude of muscle tension depending on effort and accuracy of pressing of a key on the keyboard of the instrument. The method of ENG and EMG joins the visual analyzer with neuromotor function of the hands and explains, from the scientific point of view, the ratio between the load on muscles of eyes and muscles of hands, and also it proves the possibility of development of muscular fatigue in hands depending on quantity of eyeballs’ fluctuations. The test of electroencephalogram allows us to make up the comparative diagrams of dynamics of the proceeding neurophysiologic processes, and also it offers an opportunity to investigate functional activity of neurons during synthesis both of music and digital patterns.

The realization of the described scientific researches in this direction will allow us to approach closer to understanding of more subtle mechanisms of the child’s mental activity and to detect the physiological factors in promotion to the enhancement of the speediness, quality and efficiency of musical education.



Mathematical Aspect



The main positive feature of the digital grammar is that it does not deny the generally accepted music grammar, and is as an additional material in the initial period of the child’s contact with music. The developed new technology includes the integration of entire music structure by means of digits, fraction : the information in numerator – right hand, information in denominator – left hand. For example the melody of the Russian popular song has the following digital expression :

Fig.1

In differential system of digital notation of music information it is necessary to mark out repetitions in a melody and integrity of these segments through variable mathematical values or symbols ( x, y, z ), such methods of cording simplifies the information pattern for visual perception and it allows the child faster to make analyses and synthesis of a melody as a whole, and then to decode precisely this information without special efforts with growing skill of performing mastery:

Fig.2

For natural time organization of sounding melody it is necessary to change only the tempo of the play but the code of the melody should be performed with the help of digits and relative quantity of zeroes for definition of a longitude of sounds.

The digital marking of a chord with the help of a matrix and expression through the determinant allows to create a visual – motor stereotype of perception of a chord as a composed element of music structure.

Fig.3

The matrix mode considerably simplifies the work with accompaniment, frees the child of great volume of difficult and tiresome work(Chervatiuk 1990). The clear and simple interpretation of the music information through an integral key enables the child to make up a correct mental notion about the contents and character of the music play.



Summary



Throughout many centuries the musical structure had numerous modifications. We can observe constant use of digits for convenience of notation of the music sounds, for example : digital organ bass, lute tabulatures, guitar jazz ciphers

( Bril 1985 ). Nowadays the digital system of teaching is absent in the educational program and is not applied in practice because of teacher’s insufficient professional knowledge in the sphere of the child’s physiology.

The scientific work entitled " Reflection " is closely connected with related sciences ; physiology , neurophysiology , psychology , pedagogy , it requires support and realization of the neurophysiologic researches in accordance with the elaborated Project.

On the basis of pedagogical experience we have came to the following conclusion : digital grammar has great practical consideration, is based on physiological point of view and can be applied in the music teaching with aid of computer and MIDI – technology. The developed number technology is simple and accessible in teaching children both of preschool age ( 5 -7 years old ) and children of early school age ( 7 – 9 years old ).

The authors’ main task is to describe the peculiarities of digital technology, to reflect the neurophysiologic aspect of scientific investigations, to raise a question on the necessity of application of the digital system in stage-by-stage practice of musical education.

The scientific article “ Digital Music Grammar “ is intended to help teachers, students, psychologists to become acquainted with system of intensive musical teaching on the methods of number key. We shall be grateful to all readers for their valuable recommendations, reviews and offers which will be taken into consideration and applied in scientific investigations in this direction with benefit for children.



Authors :

Kolesnic V. D. pediatrician

Stepanov S.M. teacher of music







Authors' Resume



The scientific article " Digital Music Grammar " raises the topic questions on necessity of application of the digital technologies in the system of music education .

Realization of the sci. investigations permits us to understand the most delicate mechanisms of child's mental activity and to detect new creative abilities.

Directed application of the information technologies will help for schoolmasters to improve the quality , speed and efficiency on musical teaching of the children . The solution of these questions depends on welfare of society and desire of every man to contribute towards the future of children .



Kolesnik V.D. pediatrician

Stepanov S.M. teacher of music











List of References



1. Beresov T.T., Korovkin B.F. The role of mediators in transmission of nervous impulses. Biological chemistry.Moscow 1990 : p.498-500.

2. Green A.P.Q., Stout G.W., Taylor D.J. Contracting reaction. Synapse. Biological science. Moscow 1990 : vol.3.p.19-20,23,26. vol.2.p.253-258

3. Rumiantseva M.F., Loseva T.N.,Bunina T.P.Anatomy – physiological properties of muscles.Moscow 1986 :p.27-37.

4. Chervatiuk P.A. Chord sequences. Scientific and methodical bases of teaching harmony with the system of algorithm.Moscow 1990:p.102.

5. Bril I. Harmonious schemes for exercises. Practical course of jazz improvisation.Moscow 1985 : p.49-50.

6. http://reflectionmusic.ucoz.com/ . Figures 1.2.3.









Algorithm of Microcycles



In pedagogical practice at the second period of music education the considerable majority of pupils inevitably spend a lot of time and efforts to master by professional skills of playing music instrument and to perfect different methods of practical activity with music information. In the process of integrating the adopted music information from sheet a pupil is confronted with great difficulties in perception of study material, its synthesis and realization on an instrument. A heavy study load is the cause of emerging negative emotions, lowers child’s interest to the music subject, and as a result of that, the quality of knowledge worsens, the speed and efficiency of music teaching are restricted. It is necessary to find more effective ways and methods on teaching of children, to pay special attention not only to a certain kind of activity, but also to the nature of formation of each skill separately.

The pedagogic task at given period of teaching consists in that to give the intensive development to the natural gift of a child, rationally to realize his potential music possibilities in special psychosomatic action as a result. Speaking about the main task in this direction it is necessary to emphasize application of sequential alteration of kind of mental activity of pupils. In this connection, and with the aim to distribute the appearing sum study load in child’s mental sphere on separate its components in according to their dynamic and kinetic characteristic features, the new technology of music teaching “ Algorithm of Microcycles “ has been developed. The way of perception of music information through the brief episodic cycles is put in the base of this technology. Given methods allows a child to enter into practical lesson actively, to limit fatigue in time, to master professional skills dynamically and, as a result, to eliminate the negative attitude to study process.



Physiological Basis



The insistent necessity of alteration of pupil’s attention is dictated by peculiarities of physiology of the higher nervous activity, namely that, if with appearing of more-less long-term existing in the central nervous system of the nidus of stagnant excitation ( on extra monotonous mental activity ),naturally, sings of fatigue of the nerve cells-neurons are increased in the range of this nidus and work capacity of these neurons is decreased in the view of lengthening period of remembering and reproducing of any information. If at the first symptoms of fatigue and reducing of the pupils’ attention, sequentially to alter their attention to other kind of work, the stagnant excitation gradually subsides, as other nervous centre of brain is excited already.

The methods " Algorithm of Microcycles " consists of five short episodic elements. The kind of activity in each algorithm is solitary and distinctive from the next one in its nature of activity, thus applying step ( cyclic ) alteration of pupil’s attention, the capability of the nervous centers to improve their physiological lability is increased and, as a result, motion of the following excitable reactions is alleviated. The main source of enhancement of pupils’ work capacity is sequential transfer of attention, the rational distribution of the sum study load on its separate components, the relaxation of the brain’s strained nervous centers. Concluding from the above – said standpoint of physiology, the methods of algorithm is undoubtedly useful, it is positively reflected in psycho-emotional status and the teaching of children is accelerated.



Practical Basis



In order to study physiological influence of methods “ Algorithm of Microcycles “ to the pupil’s psycho-emotional status the practical researches have been conducted. The obtained results have shown a high level of knowledge in the experimental group compared with control group. The performance capability of the control group of children taught on system adopted music grammar is characterized by low activity of analytical thinking, quick mental fatigue, instability of attention. The experimental group of children taught on digital system “Algorithm of Microcycles “ has firmly mastered the practical skills of play an instrument, and the study process passed on the positive psycho-emotional base. Comparative data of these researches confirm practical value and effectiveness of study technology.

The recommended technology of music teaching is directed on the balanced and rational distribution of the sum study load to psycho-emotional sphere of a child, proposes the physiologic mechanism of alteration of the kind of activity in order to eliminate fatigue of the brain’s nervous centers, to increase performance capability, to active the mental work. Integration of music information through the methods of algorithm foresees the program organization of educational process, permits systemic to manage by sum study effect. Applying of recommended technology in system of music education allows quickly and firmly to master by practical skills, dynamically to develop the child’s natural music potentiality.



Discription in Details



A. Pupil is confronted with the task : to learn a melody by heart. This kind of activity can be realized by means of analysis method i.e. to describe mentally the melody and its fragments in his notion. In this kind of activity allow the pupil actively to enter into the process of analysis of the music structure, to pay attention to durations of sounds. Using the mode of perception of the music information mentally, the pupil acquires skill of analytical perception of music sounds, develops ability to form inner – hearing notion about content and construction of the melody as a whole. Relaxation – 5 seconds.

B. Pupil is confronted with the task : to reproduce learned melody with help of an instrument. This kind of activity can be realized by means of analogy method i.e. to compare the learned melody with its demanded sounding on an instrument

( Karpenko L.A.1990). In this kind of activity allow the pupil to pay attention to expressive performance of melody and its dynamics of sounding. Using the mode of realization of music information, pupil acquires skill of expression of a sound on an instrument, develops the ability to identify the sound. Relaxation – 10 seconds.

C. Pupil is confronted with the task: to pick up an accompaniment to learned melody. This kind of activity can be realized by means of matrix method i.e. to integrate chords through mathematical symbols. In this kind of activity allow the pupil to pay attention to the determinant of matrix, to model meter-rhythmic pattern of ready-made chords of accompaniment. Using the mode of selection of chords to a melody, the pupil acquires skill to accompany to the melody, develops ability to identify the harmony of assonances. Relaxation -15 seconds.

D. Pupil is confronted with the task: to consolidate learned material, to introduce additional technical corrections. This kind of activity can be realized by means of method of differential proof i.e. artificially to divide the complex text up to small fragments, which are perfected separately and then are integrated into a single whole. In this kind of activity allow the pupil to pay attention to technical details of base material. Using the mode of differential proof of structural fragments, the pupil acquires technical skill of coordinated action, develops ability to feel the smallest intervals of time leading to the exact reaction and lability of thinking. Relaxation – 20 seconds.

E. Pupil is confronted with the task: to review mentally all texture of A,B,C,D, – elements. This kind of activity can be realized by means of method of ideomotor analysis i.e. sequentially to transfer attention to integrated elements of base material( KarpenkoL.A. 1990). In this kind of activity allow the pupil to pay attention to the derived fragments of base material. Using the mode of ideomotor integration of base material, the pupil creates the standard in his notion, forms the program orientation to successful performance of a motif , a melody, a composition in general.







Neurophysiological Aspect



The developed technology of intensive music teaching on methods of ”Algorithm of Microcycles “ is valuable for studying of influence of recommended technology to the child’s psycho – emotional status, and further, is a scientific base for studying of psychosomatic functions i.e. the functional interrelations between visual and acoustic analyzers, between acoustic, visual analyzers and neuro-motor function of the right hand, between visual, acoustic analyzers and neuro-motor function of both hands. In this connection the experimental scientific researches are to be performed , namely : EMG,EEG-tests, for studying of distribution of appearing functional load on the child’s psychic sphere in process of practical study on two different methods.

Dynamics of movements and actions is characterized by time, high-speed, spatially-time, power and other parameters. Given parameters reflect the complex neurophysiologic processes passing in leading functional systems of the child’s organism ( central nervous system, muscular system, and others ) also explain, from a scientific point of view, the interrelations of neuromuscular coordination in their kinetic and dynamic data, the appearing threshold potential of synapse fatigue, interrelations between the frequency and intensity of nervous impulses

( Berezov T.T.,Korovkin B.F.1990 ).

Fatigue of synapse is explained by extra continuous excitation in result of which a considerable quantity of neurotransmitter is allocated, naturally, this leads to untimely synthesis and, as a result of this reaction, the progressive increasing amplitude of postsynaptic potential of action is formed .Partial delay of synaptic transmission violates the functional activity between muscle tension and the resulting action of manual techniques, therefore the child’s acoustic analyzers perceive consecutive or separated codes of deformed music information in time, rhythm and sound expression, of course, this violates the coordination of music-acoustic interrelations, leads to the defect of metro-rhythmic functions, keeps up the development of child’s natural music potentiality ( Green N.P.O., Stout G.W., Taylor D.J.1990 ). Applying the technology of A,B,C,D,E – algorithm, the child rationally distributes the total study load on leading functional systems his organism, creates highly – accurate coordination without inclusion in practical activity of unnecessary muscle groups, unnecessary movements, excessive effort by pressing a key, and it means, he excludes possibility of appearing of false acoustic and muscular sensations, and as a result of it, instantly creates a firm neuron linkage which in our life we call as a skill of coordinated action. Realization of the described scientific investigations in this direction will allow us to approach closer to understanding of more subtle mechanisms of child’s mental activity and to detect physiological factors that promote to improvement of quality, speed and efficiency of music education.



Methods Recommendations



Distinctive feature of developed technology consists of a process of integration of music information through the brief, episodic microcycles. The methods of algorithm has great practical value and efficiency at the second period of music education, namely, in the period when digital or initial music grammar is being studied by children well and worked in practice. The main positive moment of given technology is that it can be applied both in an adopted music and in digital formats of teaching. The elaborated study module consists of five structural elements:

A – study of a melody by heart;

B – reflection on an instrument;

C – selection of accompaniment;

D – consolidation of base material;

E – ideomotor analysis ( Milich B.E.1977 ).

The order and sequence of cycles can both be applied by a teacher separately, into practical lessons, when he is interested in the perfection of special skills of the pupil, and in their logarithmic sequence, when a common stereotype is formed.

Fig.4

The structure of A,B,C,D, E – algorithm is learned by pupil gradually, it provides an opportunity firmly to master skills of playing a music instrument and freely to use them in practice. At the following steps of music teaching the cycles of the methods are realized in the time interval striving to a minimum. Stage-by-stage music education promotes to the stabile growth of pupil’s manual techniques, development of analytical thinking, forms inner-hear perception of music information.

At the given stage of music teaching a child stabilizes the metro-rhythmic functions comparing sounds of short and long durations. Therefore it is logical to exclude difficult durations as the sixteenth and the eighth. Accepting the quarter note as the basic unit of measure, it is easy to explain half and whole durations using a way of addition. Such stability of durations in simple form of division is easily perceived by children and promotes to preserving of an even rhythm. For the natural time organization of metro-rhythm and expressive sounding of a melody it is required to change only tempo of the play, but the recording of tune is to be executed by means of relative durations( Sposobin I.V.1958 ). While become acquainted with the difficult durations, as and when pupil’s manual techniques allow him to use them, the melody written in quarters and halves should be performed in fast tempo – Allegro, Presto ( ! = 180-208 ) naturally, we obtain the complicated type of durations. The bill, as a means of organization of metro-rhythmic functions, it is necessary to use in its active form : “ don –don “, “ tick – tick “,“tuk – tuk “, and so on. Such way allows the child to graduate precisely a longitude of one vowel sound in relation to one share of the beat.

Selection of an accompaniment to a base melody is a very difficult and complex process. At the given stage of teaching we can see immature neuro-motor functions of the left hand, the poor development of music – acoustic interrelations. Methods and ways of selection of the accompaniment are applied by the teacher according to his personal experience, and also with the account of the physiological data of pupil ( music-acoustic features, his neuromotor functions, age factor). There are several techniques and ways of selection of accompaniment : harmonic, melodic, analogy, imitation, mathematical, verbal and others. In contrast, the mathematical one is the most accurate and efficient method. Chord of accompaniment is made in accordance with the matrix law, determinant of which is the cipher value of the chord elements(Shtaingardt D.A. 1978).In order to save more time and to speed up this kind of activity, the pupil should memorize the chords not separate music notes, and in symbols, having a clear idea about metro – rhythmic pattern of ready-made chords. The digital techniques of selection of accompaniment to the base melody relieves a pupil from a great volume of labour-consuming, tiresome work and radically simplifies this activity. During the carrying on of practice homework, the pupil can independently operate with chords written in a digital format.

Successful performance of a music composition, as well as, the dynamic development of pupil’s manual technique depend on a choice of optimal variant of fingerings. Rational fingering is used in accordance with the teacher’s personal experience, and also taking into account the child’s individual peculiarities (age factor, motor functions, the length of fingers). It is not necessary to write out the fingerings for all play in detail, the most rational is fragment marking of fingerings in technically difficult and key places of the text. In the method of microcycles, it is necessary to use the letter fingerings :“ t “-thumb,“ i “-index, “ m “- medium,“ r “-nameless, ” l “- little finger.

Relaxation after each microcycle is the main condition for the successful mastering by practical skills of playing a music instrument. Time of pauses in longitude of 5-10-15-20 – seconds between cycles is rather a key condition. At the earliest stages of music teaching the intermediate pauses are used after each microcycle and their time-limit is possible till 2 – 3 minutes. None the less, at later stages of music teaching when the pupil has mastered the practical skills and has perfected various ways of technical activity, the intermediate interval of pauses is reduced and definitely strived to minimum, it is natural, that the time of pauses between the microcycles is shortened to seconds only. The purpose of the method of microcycles is designed thus to help children to master the practical skills of integration of the music material through brief, episodic cycles; the periodical use relaxation of the brain’s strained nervous centers; and the sequential alternation of attention to the following kind of activity.

For creative and techniques of the pupil’s growth, it is necessary to adhere to a certain sequence in teaching methods and the selection of the study material for the scheme “ from simple to complex “. Melody is the main expressive means of the music. With the help of melody a child learns to express sounds in time and form, in content and character. The sounds of melody should be located close to each other, large intervals are difficult to children. Music examples are composed of highly dynamic and carefully selected material.Fig5(Practical Examples). Repertory material is based on a combination of various technical tasks and ways of performance of actions in their practical unity. It is desirable to include the most interesting folk songs, dances which are based on movements and speech, have a bright expressed melody and stable metro-rhythmic fundament.



Summary



“Reflection” – digital technology on music teaching of children by methods of ”Algorithm of Microcycles “ is joined to a number of related disciplines : physiology, neurophysiology, psychology, pedagogic, it requires the support and realization of neurophysiological investigations devoted to studying of the influence of given technology on the state of leading functional systems of the child’s organism.

Statistics and practice show that the period of learning by standard music grammar is delayed for several years. Already at the early stage of learning at Children’s Music School, within of two – three months, up to thirty percent of children lose their interest to music subject and leave study. This phenomenon is explained by the study overload arising at the first contact of the child to difficult format of adopted note coding and decoding of music information. The developed stage – by – stage technology of teaching on digital format eliminates the negative statistics, solves a number of pedagogical and practical problems arising in the course of music education. At the third stage of learning, while transition to the forms traditional music letter, the breakage of the formed stereotype will not cause much effort and difficulty as the child already freely owns a digital base of coordinated music-acoustic skills and habits, and besides it, the technology of algorithm is designed in such manner that solves this moment of transition, naturally, so that the psycho-emotional self – affirmation of the child will require purposeful activity in studying of standard music format.

Fig.6

On the base of pedagogical experience, we have come to the conclusion: the method of algorithm is founded upon a physiological point of view, proven in practice and can be applied with success in the developing of educational programs with use of the computer and MIDI – technology. The authors’ main task is to describe the structure of technology of A,B,C,D,E – algorithm, typical model features and physiological mechanism of forming and maintenance of technical skills and habits of the child.

Scientific article “Algorithm of Microcycles “is intended for acquainting of teachers, psychologists, students and others with the system of intensive music education of children at early school age ( 7-9 years old ). Authors of the scientific article will be grateful for valuable reviews, comments, recommendations and proposals which will be considered and applied in scientific researches in this direction with the aim of aesthetic education of children.



Stepanov S.M. teacher of music

Kolesnik V.D. pediatrician



Authors' Resume



The scientific article “ Algorithm of Microcycles “ raises the topic or question of the necessity of the use of the digital technology in the system of music education .

Application of informational technology will allow teachers to improve quality, speed and efficiency at the second period of the music education of children.

The scientific conception “ Reflection “ proposes to investigate the neurophysiological mechanisms of child’s mental activity ( synapse transmission between neurons in different systems of dimension ) , to solve some number of practical and pedagogic problems, to identify the new technology direction in the system of music education. Stepanov S.M.



List of References



1. Karpenko L.A.1990.Psychology.Moscow.Yaroshevsky M.G.( Idiomotor action. Analogy.- № 2.- p.20.131-132.)

2. Berezov T.T., Korovkin B.F.1990. Biological chemistry. Moscow. Debova S.S. ( Role of mediators in transmission of nervous impulses.- № 2.-p.498-500.)

3. Green N.P.O., Stout G.W., Taylor D.J.1990.Biological science.Moscow. Soper R. ( Contracting reaction.vol.-3.-p.19-20.23.26. Synapse.vol.-2.-p.253-258.)

4. Milich B.E. 1977. Teaching of pupils pianists at the Children music school.Kiev. Mokritskaya L.M. ( Principles of work with the composition. -p.45-50. )

5. Sposobin I.V. 1958. Elementary theory of the music. Moscow. Solovieva K. ( Relativity of durations.- № 3.-p.29. )

6. Shtaingardt D.A. 1978. Higher mathematics.Moscow. Kulikova L. S. ( Elements of line algebra and line programming.-№ 1.-p.40-46.)

7.http://reflectionmusic.ucoz.com/ . Fig.4.5(Practical Examples).Fig6.

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8 months ago

Computer based maths module in Elementary Music Education
Kids of new generation should have different methods of training .They are capable to perceive information faster, with cross-modal processing ,activating all senses at once : visual perception, audio analyzers , neuromotor functions.
http://www.linkedin.com/pulse/computer-based-maths-module-elementary-music-education-sergey
http://educationinjapan.wordpress.com/2011/02/04/considering-the-benefits-of-digital-music-grammar-in-a-music-educational-program/
NeuromusicGroup Reflection Ukraine

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over 1 year ago

Math & Music
Kids of new generation should have different methods of training. They are capable to perceive information faster, with cross-modal processing, activating all senses at once : visual perception, audio analyzers, neuromotor functions.
We ought to help Children in School of Arts .
http://educationinjapan.wordpress.com/2011/02/04/considering-the-benefits-of-digital-music-grammar-in-a-music-educational-program/
http://stepanovreflection.podomatic.com/entry/2014-12-17T07_51_58-08_00
http://www.linkedin.com/pub/sergey-stepanov/43/aa8/b72

NeuromusicGroup Reflection Ukraine

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over 1 year ago

Math & Music
Kids of new generation should have different methods of training. They are capable to perceive information faster, with cross-modal processing, activating all senses at once : visual perception, audio analyzers, neuromotor functions.
We ought to help Children in School of Arts .
http://educationinjapan.wordpress.com/2011/02/04/considering-the-benefits-of-digital-music-grammar-in-a-music-educational-program/
http://stepanovreflection.podomatic.com/entry/2014-12-17T07_51_58-08_00
http://www.linkedin.com/pub/sergey-stepanov/43/aa8/b72

NeuromusicGroup Reflection Ukraine

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almost 2 years ago

Neuromusic for Kids

Kids of new generation should have different methods of training.
They are capable to perceive information faster, with cross-modal transfer, activating all senses at once : visual recognition, audio perception, neuromotor functions.
We have to help Children in Schools of Arts
http://stepanovreflection.podomatic.com/entry/2014-12-17T07_51_58-08_00

http://www.linkedin.com/pub/sergey-stepanov/43/aa8/b72

https://educationinjapan.wordpress.com/2011/02/04/considering-the-benefits-of-digital-music-grammar-in-a-music-educational-program/

http://reflectionmusic.ucoz.com/

NeuromusicGroup - Reflection Ukraine