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Literacy and Culture - Cultural Conflicts in Classroom Practices, Culturally Responsive Pedagogy as Zones of Proximal Development

students reading language american

Literate practices are learned within dynamic cultural systems that structure roles and scripts (alphabetic, pictographic), privilege modes of reasoning, and offer tools through which such practices may be carried out. In modern, often Westernized, societies, these tools include books, newspapers, magazines, film, digital technology, and television. Historically, the advent of new technologies–such as the printing press–made possible new explorations of literacy and opportunities for more people to become literate. With greater global immigration, more students for whom English is a second language are entering U.S. classrooms. In some cases both U.S.-born and immigrant populations are involved in literate practices that operate under different assumptions than those that characterize school-based literacies. The digital age in particular offers opportunities to many more people to self-publish, create and interpret multimedia texts, privilege non-linear approaches to reading, for example, in hypermedia texts, engage in visual as well as oral communication across borders, and access rich databases internationally. These and other advances are ushering in new kinds of literate practices that now challenge schools to learn to integrate them meaningfully and to provide equitable access across groups. This entry will focus on literate practices defined by ethnicity (including language use) and by academic discipline, considering their implications for classroom instruction and student learning.

Induction into literate practices involves socialization in the ability to decode scripts and to reason in patterned ways. People demonstrate their membership in literate communities through ways they use language–knowing the right lexicon, the structure of appropriate genres, as well as when, where, and how talk should proceed. In reading and writing, such cultural models may be influenced by ethnicity, nationality, disciplines, and professions. Reading literature, for example, requires one to infer motives, goals, and internal states of characters based not only on clues from the text, but also from one's reading of the social world. Reading primary historical texts requires readers to invoke disciplinary norms, questioning the point of view of the author, drawing on knowledge of historical contexts. Some challenges that students face in literacy instruction derive from differences between community-based cultural models and school-based literacies.

Cultural Conflicts in Classroom Practices

Schools are seen as the repository of "standard" English, which is assumed to be the proper medium of communication for advancement in the marketplace and the academy. Not only is the standard a historically moving target (syntactical and lexical forms considered proper, say, in eighteenth-century Great Britain or the United States are considered archaic and inappropriate in the twenty-first century); in addition, certain syntactic markers have different values. For example, "It is me" is not considered "improper" English (as opposed to the "standard" form "It is I"), whereas "It be me," a marker of African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is seen as "incorrect." In the 1970s researchers documented how students of color, English Language Learners (ELL), and students living in low-income communities were marginalized through classroom practices, particularly in the area of literacy instruction.

Susan Phillips's work helped the field to understand how opportunities to participate in instruction were actualized in classrooms. She examined relationships of power that are constructed through norms for talk in classrooms. She documented the conflicts between norms for talk in the Navajo Nation and ways Anglo teachers expected Navajo students to participate. Using Anglo norms, teachers interpreted long stretches of silence by Navajo students as evidence that students were not learning.

In a similar vein other researchers, such as Courtney Cazden and colleagues, documented how oral language practices by low-income African-American primary level students were interpreted as deficits rather than resources. The function of sharing time is to scaffold young children from oral storytelling to the production of features of the kinds of academic writing that they will be expected to produce in later grades. Teachers viewed the African-American children's stories as ill formed and saw the students' language as a deficit. By contrast, Sarah Michaels analyzed the children's stories as fitting a different structure, which she termed topic-associative in contrast to the topic-centered stories of the Anglo children. James Gee extended Michaels's analysis to claim that the topic-associative story structure included complex literary elements. The consequences of teachers' abilities to recognize the literate features of children's oral language has important consequences for the ways they are or are not able to extend the funds of knowledge that students bring to classrooms in order to help students learn school-based ways of reading and writing.

Other research has found more African-American students employing topic-centered stories than topic-associative. Tempii Champion identified an array of narrative genres used by African-American children. Champion's findings illustrate how children across different communities "take up various narrative styles, structures, and content [that] include formal instruction, informal instructional contexts, family contexts and others" (p. 72). If one moves away from the social address model that categorizes people into discrete cultural communities, one can understand the ways that children and adolescents, for example, traverse multiple cultural communities. In the process they adopt, adapt, and hybridize a variety of oral and textual genres that become part of their literate repertoires. They learn to engage such repertoires in different contexts, with different actors, for different purposes.

Language is central to literate practices. Research in bilingual education has explored how ELL use resources in the first language as they engage in reading and writing in the second language. When faced with a breakdown in comprehension while reading English texts, Spanish-speaking students, for example, would think in Spanish to repair comprehension. How a first language other than English may be drawn upon in support of school literacy often depends on how much formal schooling students had in the first language before entering U.S. schools.

Another area of study is literate practices of children and families outside school, shedding light on how schools can make connections with what students know and ways they learn that are not currently reflective in mainstream school literacy practices. The church in many low-income communities is a site for multilingual literate practices. For Spanish-speaking families, researchers documented literate practices associated with doctrina, catechism classes for children that involve reading and writing extended texts in both Spanish and English. Beverly Moss documents the oral as well as reading-writing practices in African-American Christian churches. For example, call and response is a dominant discourse pattern in black churches that requires the audience to attend closely to nuances of the delivered text and invites a high level of engagement by the audience. However, call and response is seldom invoked in classrooms serving African-American students (Carol Lee reports exceptions).

Schools value children's emergent literacy experiences outside school as preparation for learning to read, write, and speak. Reading books to young children at home is seen as an important predictor of future school success and white middle-class patterns of storybook reading are considered a norm that all families should emulate. However, Carol Schneffer Hammer reports both low-income and middle-class African-American mothers employing an interactive storybook reading style different from the white middle-class model. These mothers did not employ a question-asking routine but were still able to elicit appropriate language responses. Others have noted the value of oral storytelling as an emergent literacy practice, with an emphasis on its performative features; comparable mismatches with low-income Anglo students, particularly Appalachian students, have also been documented.

Many communities and individuals grapple with the question of which community-based language and literate practices to abandon in order to succeed in school. Ethnic and language cultural communities are not homogeneous in their response to this challenge. For immigrant populations, socioeconomic status and the number of generations removed from the country of origin are the most significant factors. Gail Weinstein-Shr documented two Hmong communities in Philadelphia with very different orientations toward cultural integration into U.S. "mainstream" values. Daniel McLaughlin has reported similar debates regarding reading and writing in Navajo versus English.

Community-based literate practices in low-income neighborhoods often involve reading functional and religious texts, and forms of writing such as letters, lists, and journals. Such reading and writing often involve both English and the community-based language. By contrast, the standards movement in literacy focuses on longer and discipline-based texts. Basil Bernstein characterizes language practices of working-class students as localized to the immediate context and not characterized by the more abstract and generalizable strategies that many associate with school-based literacies. The countervoice to this position argues that literate practices are always context bound, socially co-constructed by the participants.

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy as Zones of Proximal Development

Lower literacy achievement rates for African-American, Latino, some Asian-American, and most low-income students have been attributed to three sources: cultural mismatches between instruction and the backgrounds of students; structural inequalities in the society manifested in the organization of and resources allocated to schools serving these populations; and ineffective instruction that is not based on enduring best practices. Culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP) is one response that addresses cultural mismatches directly and often addresses macro-level structures indirectly.

Studies of culture and cognition show that through repeated and patterned experience in the world, we develop schema through which we filter future experiences. New learning is strongest when we are able to make connections to prior knowledge. CRP explicitly fosters connections between students' cultural funds of knowledge and disciplinary knowledge to be learned.

This approach is particularly relevant to literacy because both language use and socially shared knowledge are central to acts of reading and writing. In addition, CRP often structures ways of talking that appropriate cultural norms for discourse from students' home communities. Examples below illustrate CRP focusing on generic reading and writing.

A classic example is the KEEP Project with Native Hawaiian children. Discussions of stories read were structured to resemble Talk Story, a community-based genre that involved multiparty overlapping talk. Students achieved significant gains in reading. Luis Moll coined the phrase "cultural funds of knowledge" in an ethnographic investigation of routine practices in a Mexican origin community in Tuscon, Arizona. Moll documented ways adults in the community engaged in practices involving carpentry, plumbing, and other skills, and the literate practices embedded in them. He then designed an after-school structure that allowed teachers to learn about these practices and forge relationships with community residents, resulting in teachers' incorporation of adult mentors in the classroom. Students learned to build projects around the cultural practices of the community, each requiring extensive reading, writing, and speaking.

Other work with ELL focuses on the competencies children and adolescents develop as language brokers, translating in high-stakes settings for their parents. Translating involves negotiating across different codes, understanding appropriate registers, anticipating audience, negotiating perspective, and often involves reading and writing in two languages.

The Fifth Dimension Project (FD) is a network of after-school computer clubs operating nationally and internationally. Through play, adults and children together work their way through a maze by developing competencies in commercial computer games and board games. The children are low income, many ELL for whom Spanish is the language used at home. Literate practices involve reading game instructions, writing to a mythical wizard who responds to questions, and communicating orally and in writing to others. Through this project children have structured access to multiple mediational means–invited use of English and Spanish/AAVE, and so forth, peer and adult mentors, the mytical wizard, and opportunities to move fluidly across roles. FD students have shown significant increases in reading achievement, despite the fact that didactic teaching of reading and writing are not the focus of the intervention.

Carol Lee has developed a design framework for CRP called Cultural Modeling (CM). CM has focused on response to literature and narrative composition. CM works on the assumption that students–in this case speakers of AAVE–already tacitly engage in modes of reasoning required to interpret literary tropes and genres. Instruction engages students in what Lee calls metacognitive instructional conversations where the focus is on how students know, for example, that rap lyrics are not intended to be interpreted literally, and what clues/strategies students use to reconstruct the intended meaning. In addition, in CM classrooms–with African-American students–classroom discourse reflects AAVE norms with overlapping multiparty talk, high use of gesture, and rhythmic prosody. In CM classrooms, high school students with low standardized achievement scores in reading display very complex literary reasoning with rich, canonical texts. A. F. Ball found secondary African-American students displayed in their writing a preference for a set of expository features that are rooted in what Geneva Smitherman has called the African-American Rhetorical Tradition. Smitherman found that the presence of these features correlated positively with higher evaluations on National Assessment of Educational Progress samples.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BALL, A. F. 1992. "Cultural Preferences and the Expository Writing of African-American Adolescents." Written Communication 9 (4):501–532.

BERNSTEIN, BASIL. 1970. Primary Socialization, Language and Education. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

BLOOME, DAVID, et al. 2001. "Spoken and Written Narrative Development: African American Preschoolers as Storytellers and Storymakers." In Literacy in African American Communities, ed. Joyce L. Harris, Alan G. Kamhi, and Karen E. Pollock. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

CAZDEN, COURTNEY; JOHN, VERA P.; and HYMES, DELL. 1972. Functions of Language in the Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.

CHAMPION, TEMPII. 1998. "'Tell Me Somethin' Good': A Description of Narrative Structures among African-American Children." Linguistics and Education 9 (3):251–286.

GEE, JAMES PAUL. 1989. "The Narrativization of Experience in the Oral Style." Journal of Education 171 (1):75–96.

HAMMER, CAROL SCHNEFFNER. 2001. "'Come Sit Down and Let Mama Read': Book Reading Interactions between African-American Mothers and Their Infants." In Literacy in African-American Communities, ed. Joyce L. Harris, Alan G. Kamhi, and Karen E. Pollock. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

LEE, CAROL D. 1995. "A Culturally Based Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching African-American High School Students' Skills in Literary Interpretation." Reading Research Quarterly 30 (4):608–631.

LEE, CAROL D. 1997. "Bridging Home and School Literacies: A Model of Culturally Responsive Teaching." In A Handbook of Research on Teaching Literacy through the Communicative and Visual Arts, ed. James Flood, Shirley Brice Heath, and Diane Lapp. New York: Macmillan.

LEE, CAROL D. 2000. "Signifying in the Zone of Proximal Development." In Vygotskian Perspectives on Literacy Research: Constructing Meaning through Collabative Inquiry, ed. Carol D. Lee and Peter Smagorinsky. New York: Cambridge University Press.

LEE, CAROL D. 2001. "Is October Brown Chinese: A Cultural Modeling Activity System for Underachieving Students." American Educational Re-search Journal 38 (1):97–142.

MCLAUGHLIN, DANIEL. 1989. "The Sociolinguistics of Navajo Literacy." Anthropology and Education Quarterly 20 (4):275–290.

MICHAELS, SARAH. 1981. "Sharing Time: Children's Narrative Styles and Differential Access to Literacy." Language in Society 10:423–442.

MOLL, LUIS. 1994. "Literacy Research in Community and Classrooms: A Sociocultural Approach." In Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading, 4th edition, ed. Robert B. Ruddell, Martha P. Ruddell, and Harry Singer. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

MOSS, BEVERLY, ed. 1994. Literacy across Communities. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

PHILLIPS, SUSAN URMSTON. 1983. The Invisible Culture: Communication in Classroom and Community on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation. New York: Longman.

SMITHERMAN, GENEVA. 1977. Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

WEINSTEIN-SHR, GARIL. 1994. "From Mountain-tops to City Streets: Literacy in Philadelphia's Hmong Community." In Literacy across Communities, ed. Beverly Moss. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

CAROL D. LEE

Literacy and Reading - Realities, Reading Acquisition Research, Comprehension Research, Unsupported Assertions, Controversies [next] [back] Literacy - Intertextuality, Learning From Multimedia Sources, Multimedia Literacy, Narrative Comprehension And Production, Vocabulary And Vocabulary Learning - EMERGENT LITERACY

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36) Classical Hmong

http://history.columbia.edu/graduate/Borja.html

Department of History

36) Classical Hmoob

ZAJ XX14 1290 Hnub vas Xuv

DAWB ONLINE E-Nalanda tshawb fawb thiab kev Xyaum UNIVERSITY

Chav Kawm Cov Kev Pab:
36) Classical Hmoob



Muaj 83 yam lus nyob rau hauv

https://translate.google.com/

Thov cob kiag translation nyob rau hauv koj leej niam tus nplaig rau thesis txhais!

Thatwill Ua ib tug xyaum ntawm xab thooj li qhia los ntawm lub sam!

Thiab ua ib tug kwj Enterer Sotapanna!

Rau Nibbana Nyob Mus Ib Txhis bliss li Zaum Kawg hom phiaj!

http: sarvajan.ambedkar.org

khiav

DAWB ONLINE E-Nalanda tshawb fawb thiab kev Xyaum UNIVERSITY

Koj tus kheej, raws li ntau li ntau leej twg nyob rau hauv lub ntug tag nrho, yuav tsum tau txais koj txoj kev hlub thiab kev hlub.
- hauj sam

Haujsam HAUV Ib nutshell!
UA LI CAS TSIS PHEM!
PHEEJ UA LI CAS ZOO
YUAV xav ntsoov!
- EASY RAU A 7 xyoo TUB TO TAUB
TAB SIS nyuaj RAU A 70 xyoo txiv neej xyaum!

TIPI takÅ los yog 3 Baskets - 1) Pob tawb ntawm Discipline (Vinaya), 2) ntawm Discourses (Sutta) & 3) los yog kawg Lus Qhuab Qhia (Abhidhamma) pitakas.


Txog kev qhia rau (hauj sam)!
Ua tib zoo xav (Dhamma)!
Organise (SANGHA)!



Txawj Ntse YOG HWJ HUAM

Awakened Ib Qhia cov Kev mus rau muaj kev kaj Nyob Mus Ib Txhis bliss

COMPUTER Lom ze YOG IB TUG twj paj nruag!

INTERNET!

YOG

NET Lom ze!

UA UAS TSIM NYOG!

Siv Tej ib lub cuab yeej

Tus Dawb e-Nalanda tshawb fawb thiab kev Xyaum University muaj pob txha re-txhim tsa kom ua los ntawm cov nram qab tsev kawm ntawv ntawm Kev Kawm:


Hauj sam txoj kev xyaum Sangha Nws Dhamma dawb ntawm tus nqi, Li no tus dawb-e-Nalanda tshawb fawb thiab kev Xyaum University nram no ce


Raws li tus Thawj Nalanda University tsis muaj tej Degree, yog li ntawd lub usefull Dawb e-Nalanda tshawb fawb thiab kev Xyaum University.



lub
tej lus qhia ntawm hauj sam mus ib txhis, tab sis txawm hauj sam ces tsis tshaj tawm
kom lawv yuav ua infallible. Cov kev cai dab qhuas ntawm hauj sam muaj lub peev xwm hloov
accor Ding rau lub sij hawm, ib tug zoo Tag nrho cov uas tsis muaj lwm yam kev cai dab qhuas yuav thov tau kom
muaj ... Tam sim no yog dab tsi yog lub hauv paus ntawm Haujsam? Yog tias koj kawm kom zoo zoo etc, koj yuav
Saib Tias Haujsam yog raws li yog vim li cas. Muaj yog ib qho keeb los yog
yooj txais tau nyob rau nws, -which yog tsis pom nyob rau hauv lwm yam kev cai dab qhuas.

- Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, Indian scholar, philosopher thiab kws kes duab vajtse ntawm Constitution ntawm Is Nrias teb, nyob rau hauv nws sau ntawv thiab has lug hab


I.
Kamma

kev yug dua tshiab

Tsua-Ness

hauj sam

Yog li TUAJ IB

Dhamma

II.
ARHAT

PLAUB DAWB HUV tej yam tseeb

Eightfold txoj kev

TWELVEFOLD conditioned sawv

BODHISATTVA

Paramita

RAU Paramis

III.

RAU sab ntsuj plig hwj chim

RAU paths ntawm kev yug dua

AT DHARMA REALMS

TSIB Skandhas

KAUM YIM REALMS

TSIB ncaj ncees precepts

IV.

meditation

MINDFULNESS

PLAUB siv MINDFULNESS

lotus kev sawv

SAMADHI

Chan TSEV KAWM NTAWV

PLAUB JHANAS

PLAUB formless REALMS

V.

TSIB HOM NTAWM tug hauj KAWM THIAB XYAUM

THIAB Mahayana Hinayana Muab piv

NTSHIAB TEB CHAWS

hauj sam recitation

YIM consciousnesses

Ib puas dharmas

emptiness

VI.

dab

caj ces

nrog

Theem kuv: ​​Introduction to Haujsam

Theem II: Tug hauj Studies

TO muaj kev kaj

Theem III: Kwj Enterer

Theem IV: Thaum - returner

Theem V: Tsis yog-returner
Theem VI: Arhat


Jambudipa, ie, Prabuddha Bharath lub scientific thought nyob rau hauv

lej,

astronomy,

alchemy,

thiab

Anatomy


Philosophy thiab sib piv Religions;

Keeb kwm kev tshawb fawb;

International Relations thiab sib haum xeeb kev tshawb fawb;

Ua lag ua luam nyob rau hauv relation mus rau Management Public Policy thiab kev loj hlob kev tshawb fawb;

Yam lus thiab tej ntaub ntawv;

thiab Ecology thiab Environmental Studies

Txais tos kom tus dawb internet e-Nalanda University-

Chav Kawm Cov Kev Pab:

hauj sam

Sappurisadana Sutta Ib Tus Neeg ntawm sam xeeb tus Khoom plig

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Nyob Ness Practices
Tag nrho cov 84.000 Khandas li muaj nyob rau hauv lub Pali Suttas

poj ua cia yawm
lub yog 84.000 Dharma Qhov Rooj - 84.000 txoj kev kom tau tsaug zog Ness. Tej zaum yog li;
yeej lub hauj sam qhia ib tug loj tus naj npawb ntawm cov kev ua ntawd ua rau
Nyob Ness. Qhov no web page me nyuam no yuav Catalog Cov pom nyob rau hauv lub Pali
Suttas (DN, MN, SN, IB TUG, Ud & SN 1). Nws muaj 3 seem:
lub
Discourses ntawm hauj sam yog muab faib ua 84.000, raws li mus rau cais chaw nyob.
Division muaj xws li tag nrho cov uas tau hais los ntawm hauj sam. "Kuv tau txais los ntawm
Hauj sam, "said Ananda," 82.000 Khandas, thiab los ntawm
cov pov thawj 2000; thesis yog 84.000 Khandas tswj los ntawm kuv. "Lawv yog cov
muab faib ua 275,250, raws li mus rau lub stanzas ntawm tus thawj ntawv, thiab mus rau hauv
361,550, raws li mus rau lub stanzas ntawm lub tswv yim. Tag nrho cov Discourses
Cov neeg-xws li ob leeg ntawm hauj sam thiab cov hauv lub commentator, muab faib mus rau hauv 2.547 banawaras, muaj 737.000 stanzas, thiab 29.368.000 cais tsiaj ntawv

There are 83 languages in

https://translate.google.com/

Please render exact translation in you mother tongue for these translations!

That will become a practice of Mediation as taught by the Buddha!

And become a Stream Enterer Sotapanna!

Towards Nibbana the Eternal Bliss as Final Goal!

http: sarvajan.ambedkar.org

run

FREE ONLINE E-Nālanda Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

You yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.
– Buddha

BUDDHISM IN A NUTSHELL !
DO NO EVIL !
ALWAYS DO GOOD
BE MINDFUL !
- EASY FOR A 7 YEARS OLD BOY TO UNDERSTAND
BUT DIFFICULT FOR A 70 YEARS OLD MAN TO PRACTICE !

TIPITAKA is of 3 Baskets - 1) Basket of Discipline (Vinaya), 2) of Discourses (Sutta) & 3) of Ultimate Doctrine (Abhidhamma) Pitakas.


EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!
MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!
ORGANISE (SANGHA)!



WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

globe

Animated Candle



http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/ctmwelcome_e0.gif

TO

revolving globe

http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/globe08_e0.gif


GIF picsGIF picsVipassana Gif



Best animated graphics


animated lotus

animated buddhist wheel
COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :


Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit


As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.



The
teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim
them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change
according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to
have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will
see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of
flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

- Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches


I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat


Jambudipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath’s scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy


Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā University-

Course Programs:

BUDDHA

Sappurisadana Sutta A Person of Integrity’s Gifts

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices
All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally
the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so;
certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to
Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali
Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:
The
discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses.
The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from
Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from
the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters


Wide view of the other (back) side of Sariputta’s Stupa.
As they stood, before the Nalanda University was excavated.

The Sariputta Stupa

Back side view of Sariputta Stupa

Front view of Sariputta Stupa

Nalanda University

Nalanda StupaNalanda monastary sitesNalanda















Approaching the ruins ▒



Monastery #4 ▒



View from the upper floor

Many of the 108 monasteries that once existed here have two or more floors, with 30 or 40 rooms per floor. Only 11 monasteries have been excavated so far. Many of the rest are thought to lie buried under the surrounding villages.


Steps and passages (more)









Well inside monastery #4

Each monastery had a well, often with an octagonal cross-section.

Monastery #4 entrance (more)

Monks’ rooms



Shrine across Monastery #4

Across each monastery was a chaitya, or temple, with an image of the Buddha.

A monk’s room from above



Passageway (more)

The local guides say that this is where the visiting scholar Hiuen Tsang meditated, in a dark corner at the end of this corridor (the end where the photographer stands).


Wood fired ovens

These ovens apparently served multiple needs -- cooking ovens, smelting copper, and other laboratory work.


Bathroom with drains

Not a toilet but a bathing / washing place. Well-designed open drains are a common sight in these monasteries.

Catwalk between
Monasteries #1 and #4

Adjacent monasteries were connected by these catwalk like constructions. A narrow corridor between monasteries (this one used as the main entrance to the ruins) is typical.

One monk per room,
up to 40 rooms per floor

View of Temple #3 from
Monastery #1



Monastery #1 courtyard
and grain storage (left)

Temple #12 (more) ▒



Temple #12 steps etc.



Brickwork sample



View from temple #12

Monastery #8 (more) ▒



Monastery #9 ▒



Octagonal well



Podium in Monastery #9

Each monastery had one. It housed a Buddha image and/or was used as a lectern by the teachers.

Former monks’ quarters



University corridor (1, 2)



Area near Monastery #4



Temple #13















Temple #2 ▒

Stone base, brick top



Musician woman



Amorous couple



Musicians

Amorous couple



Amorous couple



Warrior with sword



Half-human musician

Path leading to the ruins



Bodhi trees in the park

With the ruins of Nalanda directly behind


ASI museum at Nalanda



Nalanda Overview



Nalanda University Ancient Ruins, Bihar . . .
Nalanda University Ancient Ruins, Bihar
Chandrasekharan Jagatheesan

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about 4 years ago

My new book" The Unfinished Business of the Civil Rights Movement: Failure of America's Public Schools to Properly Educate its African American Student Populations.. "Is currently available on Amazon.com, or Rosedogbooks.com.. Geneva Smitherman, Arnetha Ball,John Rickford, and Gloria Ladson are quite familiar with the materials within the book..

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about 5 years ago

Literacy and Culture - Cultural Conflicts in Classroom Practices, Culturally Responsive Pedagogy as Zones of Proximal Development

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almost 6 years ago

Thanks very much for this excellent summary of the research, which I will share with my students! I wonder if you could tell me the date this was written, so I can cite you appropriately?